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<1> /37 









HENRI ERNI, A. M., M. D., 








406 Walnut Street. 


^3) <^1 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States 
in and for the l^astern District of Pennsylvania. 



The main portions of the present 
treatise on coal oil and petroleum were 
written for and published by the Sunday 
Merning Chronicle of this city, several 
months ago. The number and length 
of these articles being beforehand limited, 
I was compelled, for the interest of the 
readers, to convey as much useful infor- 
mation as I could, sometimes at the 
expense of clearness and a more proper 

Petroleum being a subject of most, 
recent study, no books have as yet 
appeared which presented a full and 


comprehensive statement of even the 
most necessary and best established 
truths. The fa.cts of this treatise had 
to be collected and sifted with a good 
deal of labor from many foreign and 
home journals to which the author had 

The articles anonymously contributed 
by me to the Chronicle having excited 
somewhat of interest, and having been 
favorably noticed, I yielded to the desires 
of disinterested friends, and now bring 
them again before the public in a more 
extended form. I do it, however, with 
timidity, for to rewrite and rearrange the 
entire bulk of material was incompatible 
with my regular duties and feeble health. 
All that I could do since the first writing, 
was to add and improve here and there, 
in attempting to bripg the work up to 
the most recent date. 

On the manufecture of kerosene oils. 


the following books may be consulted to 
advantage : — 

Dr. Thomas Antisell. Manufacttire of Photogenic 

Oils from Coal, &c. 
Abraham Gesner. A Practical Treatise on Coal, 

Petroleum, and other Distilled Oils. New York. 
Dr. Theodore Oppler. Handboch der Fabrikation 

Mineralischer Oele, 4fcc. Berlin, 1862. 

The most valuable treatise on petro- 
leum, with which I am acquainted, is 
that of Tate, published in London, which 
I was unable to obtain, however, until a 
few days ago, when it was kindly for- 
warded to me by the publisher of this 


Washington, D. C, April, 1865. 

KD /3 7 





boanteous nature the riches of her stores in 
agriculture, mining, art, and manufacture; 
securing wealth, comforts, and happiness never 
before enjoyed. 

Without earnestly contemplating the vast 
advantages in the possession of the race, we 
can scarcely comprehend how much this age 
of steam and electricity and science in general 
differs from all preceding ones. Alluding, for 
example, to the immense national importance 
of coal as a fuel. Professor Hitchcock says: — 

"It is ascertained that, by the same pro- 
cess of growth and decay, beds of coal have 
accumulated in the United States over an area 
of more than 200,000 square miles, and prob- 
ably many more remain to be discovered. 
Yet, upon a moderate calculation, those already 
knowa contain more than 1,100 cubic miles of 
coal, one mile of which, at the rate it is now 
used, would furnish the country with coal 
for one thousand years, so that a million of 
years will not exhaust our supply. What an 
incalculable increase of the use of steam, and 
a consequent increase of population and gene- 

Scientific discoveries. 15 

ral prosperity, does such a treasure of fuel 
open before this country!"* 

* " Professor H. D. Rogers, in his Geology of Penn- 
sylvania^ shows that a vein of coal four feet thick, yield- 
ing one yard net of coal, will produce 6,000 tons of coal 
per acre, which coal possesses a power equal to the life- 
labor of more than 1,600 men. A square mile of such a 
vein contains 3,000,000 tons — equal to the life-labor of 
1,000,000 men. * In coal, this (the labor-power of a man 
for his life),' says an English reviewer of Professor Rogers's 
volumes, ' is represented by three tons ; so that a man 
may stand at his door while this quantity of coal is being 
delivered, and say to himself: There, in that wagon, lies 
the mineral representative of my whole working life's 
strength.' When we contemplate the further and indis- 
putable fact that one man can, unaided, and under dis- 
advantageous circumstances, mine in ten hours this 
quantity of coal, we need not be surprised that Peter 
Barlow, the distinguished engineer, after a full examina- 
tion of this subject in all its phases, should have said : — 

" ' It seems, indeed, a reasonable inference from all that 
has now been stated, that man was designed by his Maker 
for a higher principle of action — for the exercise of skill, 
and for invention; to regulate the action of the lower 
animals to the purpose of labor ; to convert air, fire, and 
water to his service, and only where skill and direction 
are required, to become himself a mechanical agent.' "^ 
Baird, Protection of Home Lahor, 


From tbe long list of most important scien- 
tific discoveries and inventions, we will merely 
mention a few: as the electric telegraph, the 
art of photographing, electrotyping, the appli- 
cation of ether and chloroform to allay human 
suffering, the manufacture of gun-cotton and 
collodion ; of artificial mineral gems, increasing 
so that the hopes of chemists have even 
reached to the producing diamonds or crystal- 
lized carbon itself; Dr. Gall's improvements in 
the manufacture of wine; the artificial prepara- 
tion of mineral waters, sparkling wines, and of 
fruit essences, such as the pear, apple, &c., with 
which the English bon-bons in the market are 
flavored ; the illumination of our houses with 
gas; the manufacture of ultramarine blue (once 
confined to the precious lapis lazuli) out of 
Glauber salt, clay, and charcoal. Tbe manu- 
facture of friction matches out of phosphorus 
is also worthy of mention. The use of ordinary 
phosphorus being dangerous, on account of 
its poisonous property and easy inflaminability, 
chemistry soon showed how to prepare it in a 
masked or allotropic form, at once perfectly 



harmless when swallowed in large doses, and 
safe to be carried, as it inflames only at 500 
degrees Fahrenheit. The fumes of ordinary 
phosphorus in lucifer ©atch factories fre- 
quently gave rise to necrosis, a dangerous 
disease of the upper jaw bones. The new red 
form of phosphorus gives off no fumes. Still 
later, friction matches are made without any 
phosphorus at all. 

Metals of the utmost value, in a technical 
point of view, have been isolated from material 
among the most abundant on our earth^s 
surface. Aluminum is employed by jewellers 
as a substitute for silver. Boron crystals have 
been successfully used in watches instead of 
jewels. Magnesium has the property, not 
only of burning like steel wire in oxygen, but 
in the open air, and with a light so intense 
that it can be seen twenty miles at sea. It 
may be inflamed in a candle, and thus light up 
a room, a cavern, or an ancient pyramid with 
wonderful brilliancy. It has been ascertained 
ihat a wire of 0.297 millimetre in diameter (a 
millimetre being 0.893 of an inch) will give 


as much light as twenty-four good stearine 
candles of five to the pound. Magnesium wire 
is now manufactured on a large scale by 
Sonstadt, in Germany. Magnesium light being 
chemically active, it fumisheg to the photo- 
grapher a substitute at night for sunlight, a 
good negative picture being obtained in fifty 

Some of the most recent discoveries prove 
in a remarkable degree how far science can 
supply all reasonable demands of practical 
industry. Considering the enormous consump- 
tion of paper in meeting the wants of daily lite- 
rature and newspapers, the steadily increasing 
use of tapestry, pasteboard, and papier-mach^, 
packing, and the consequences of general waste, 
the question "How shall the future production 
keep pace with the demand?" was at one time 
becoming an alarming one. The paper manu- 
facturers met daily with greater difl5culties 
in procuring raw material. In spite of every 
stimulus given to the profession of rag picking, 
the supply was necessarily a limited one. 
How, then, supply the place of linen rags? 


The scientific reasoning amounted simply to 
this: All kinds of paper are made up of woody 
fibre {cellulose)] the rags are bat utilized vege- 
table fibres derived from flax, hemp, cotton, 
ifio. Gould similar material, although perhaps 
in a different form, be obtained, success was 
certain. In looking for such a substance, 
common straw suggested itself; this was 
worked, together with rags, into paper pulp, 
and the industrial riddle was solved, as far, at 
least, as the coarser kinds of paper used for 
packing, &c. were concerned, 

As early as 1772, Dr. Schaeffer, of Eegens- 
burg, published experiments on the manufac- 
ture of paper from different materials. Indeed, 
his directions w^re printed upon paper made 
from Indian corn-husks. This discovery was, 
however, unheeded, and the process of manipu- 
lation lost. In 1856, Moritz Diamant, a writing 
teacher, from Bohemia, again directed the at- 
tention of the Imperial Government of Austria 
to maize straw. The Government at once 
took up the matter, and had lately, at its own 
expense, a large paper mill established, which 


ifl now in successful operation. All kinds of 
writing, printing, drawing, tracing, and colored 
papers are made of almost matchless beauty. 
Indeed, it was ascertained by further experi- 
menting and perfecting, that corn-husks may, 
by means of proper machinery, be spun and 
woven into cloth suitable for bags, rough 
towels, oil-cloth, &c. 

A large number of beautiful specimens of 
paper and other fabrics were presented by the 
Imperial Government to the Commissioner' of 
Agriculture, by whom they are now exhibited 
in his museum at Washington. 

Of all recent occurrences in the scientific 
world, the discovery and development of the 
properties of petroleum is perhaps the most 
worthy of notice. When viewed from a 
national standpoint, it fairly promises to out- 
rival the gold mines of California, in creating 
altogether new branches of industry. To the 
scientific skill and zeal of Beichenbach, we owe 
the discovery of the principal constituents now 
prepared chiefly from petroleum, but which he 
first obtained by the distillation of wood. 


These are mainly different oils, creasote, and 
paraffine, a wax-like body, now frequently 
exhibited in the shape of beautiful translucent 
candles. The same products were afterwards 
more abundantly and cheaply produced by the 
distillation of coal; bituminous slate, and even 
turf; and this rich field of usefulness soon 
became of immense importance aver the whole 
continent of Europe as wdll as this country. 

A thin, volatile liquid, called naphtha or 
benzine, is obtained from coal oil, furnishing a 
substitute for turpentine. The proper under- 
standing of the process of combustion shortly 
led to the construction of suitable lamps for 
burning some of the oily products, which, in 
point of cheapness and illuminating power, 
soon became second to gas only. 

At the commencement of this century, the 
means of lighting the dwelling houses of the 
masses consisted of poor tallow candles, and 
dim and dirty oil lamps. What inconceivable 
benefit, then, must these modern appliances 
to the generation of light bestqw upon the 
poor working classes, whose labor often begins 


before day and terminates long after night t 
Other oils were best adapted for lubricating 
purposes, and varied from the finest watch oil 
to lubricators for all kinds of machinery. An 
oily alkaline substance, called aniline, may be 
extracted from coal oil, which acted upon by 
chemicals produces a series of rich and brilliant 
dyes. At this stage in discovery, native petro- 
leum was announced, flowing in some localities 
almost literally like rivers, and prepared 
directly in nature's own great distillery. Of 
course this unlooked-for circumstance rendered 
the manufacture of coal oil, no matter how 
cheap and abundant the material, at once un- 
profitable. The owners of factories turned 
their establishments into distilleries, where 
native petroleum was purified. In fact, this 
revelation has put an end to the whaling 
business, and there seems to be no limit to 
the practical usefulness and variety of products 
obtained therefrom. 

Let mankind rejoice when a great truth be- 
comes unfolded and bears its fruit; at the 
establishment of each step in the eternal sue- 


cession which leads from barbarism and misery 
to civilization and happiness. But, let us not 
forget the sleepless nights, the days of toil, the 
feverish anxiety, and too often the pinching 
want of some real discoverer and devotee of 
science, who, with the most noble aims and 
most unselfish purpose, has worn his life away 
in the consummation of this same object which 
has made the nations glad. 

If it can be truly said that the history of 
almost every great discovery has also been the 
history of suflfering, let us heartily wish for 
that happy millennium to come, when the uni- 
versal sentiment shall be, fiat justitia^ ruat 


CHAPTER 11. . 


In order to be able to appreciate the full im- 
portance of the at present all absorbing theme 
— petroleum — its origin, its manifold products, 
and their significance in relation to cur com- 
merce, art, and manufactures — it will be neces- 
sary to follow its history somewhat in detail. 
A brief review of the artificial means hitherto 
employed in obtaining this invaluable article 
and its sub-products will prepare the way for a 
more perfect understanding of the principles 
which govern its accumulatiop in nature's 
great laboratory. 

Photogenic oils, and the numerous other 
products introduced grad^ially into practical 


life, and now assuming such general notoriety, 
were first prepared by a "dry** or "destructive" 
distillation of vegetable matter, such as wood, 
rosin, &c. ' We will endeavor briefly to eluci- 
date the principles involved in this chemical 
process. If a small chip of wood or straw is 
burned in atmospheric air — or, better still, in 
pure oxygen gas — its whole organic structure 
gradually disappears, and nothing remains but 
some traces of fixed incombustible mineral in- 
gredients called ashes. The elementary com- 
ponents of wood — i. €., carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen — have passed off in the form of gas or 
smoke, made up simply of water and carbonic 
acid. If animal tissues, into whose composi- 
tion nitrogen largely enters, are submitted to 
this process of combustion, carbonate of am- 
monia forms an additional part of the smoke. 
On the other hand, if vegetable remains — 
stems, rootS; mosses, &c. — are heated in close 
vessels or retorts, whence the atmospheric air 
is completely shut off, the products formed are 
very different, more complex in their composi- 


tion, and much more numerous. Such an ope- 
ration is called a dry or destructive distillation. 
The* simplest form of this process, and on,e 
which has been practised for the last two thou- 
sand yearS; is exhibited in the common char- 
coal kiln, which has for its sole object the fur- 
nishing of charcoal^ while the other volatile in- 
gredients, now-a-days considered as even more 
valuable, are suffered to pass into the air. If 
hard wood, such as beech, is subjected to dry 
distillation in a retort, and the volatile pro- 
ducts are condensed in a suitable vessel or 
receiver, four principal classes of bodies are 
obtained, viz : — 

1. Gases. 

2. Watery fluid. 

8. A dark resinous liquid. 

4. Charcoal. 

Product No, 1 is a mixture of inflammable 
gases; the most important of which are: marsh 
gas«=CHjj or C^H^. defiant gas»=C,Hj or 
O4H4. Hydrogen, carbonic oxide=»CO. Car- 
bonic acidssCOj, and sulphuretted hydrogen 
obSH. The latter is particularly apt to ^n- 


taminate coal gas. It is derived from the 
pyrites contained in the coal. 

As early as 1709, Lebon, a French engineer, 
conceived the idea of turning these carbo-hy- 
drogen gases to the practical use of illumina- 
tion, and actually lighted his house and garden 
at Paris in this manner. Murdoch, in England, 
afterwards substituted coal gas for the same 
purpose, and made a public exhibition in 1802 
by illuminating his residence. Fettenkofer has 
lately invented an improved apparatus for the 
manufacture of gas from wood, and has shown 
that it has many advantages. It is obtained 
more abundantly, and has a greater illuminat- 
ing power than coal gas. It is purer, having 
no sulphurous or ammoniacal odor. In Paris, 
they have begun to use native petroleum for this 
purpose, and several patents for the manufac- 
ture of gas from this oil have lately been taken 
out in this country. The process of making 
it is simple, it requiring no purification, and 
the apparatus is cheaper and lasts much longer 
than that for coal gas. It is not improbable 
that this now so abundant substance, being so 


cheap a source, not only of illumination but of 
caloric, may yet in part supersede coal itself. 
It is an interesting fact that, several years ago, 
the consumption of gas alone in London had 
reached the astounding sum of seven billions 
of cubic feet annually. To make this gas eight 
hundred thousand tons of coal are required, 
while the length of the main pipes through the 
streets of the city amounted to over two thou- 
sand miles. 

Product No. 2 constitutes an acrid -liquid, 
known to chemists as pyroligneous acid, or 
wood vinegar ; it is much used in the prepara- 
tion of acet^ates, such as acetate of iron; of lead, 
of soda, &c., which are in turn employed in 
dyeing and calico printing. Again, if pyro- 
ligneous acid is slowly redistilled, crude py- 
roxilic spirit, or wood-alcohol, passes over, a 
fluid having a disagreeable taste and smell, but 
which, owing to its cheapness, is largely con- 
sumed on the continent, especially in labora- 
tories, and often burnt in lamps instead of alco- 
hol. There is but little doubt that it would 
answer the conditions requisite for the preser- 


yation of anatomical specimens — a significant 
hint to manufacturers, when we consider the 
present enormous prices of alcohol, $5 per gal- 
lon, owing to which some of our large zoologi- 
cal museums (as that of Prof. Agassiz, in Cam- 
bridge) may yet become seriously embarrassed. 
Its solvent properties closely resemble those 
of alcohol, all substances soluble in the latter 
liquid being equally so in wood-alcohol. 

Owing to the high duty on spirits of wine 
in Great Britain, a mixture of alcohol and 
wood-spirit has long since been brought into 
use instead of alcohol. It is called methylated 
spirit, and is unfit for beverages or perfumes, 
but may be employed in the manufacture of 
fulminate of mercury (for percussion caps), of 
chloroform, ether, &c. 

Product No. 3 is a wood-tar, a thick liquid, 
insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol ; it 
was formerly used principally as a wood-pre- 
server for tarring and calking ships, but later 
it proved to be an important source of both 
photogenic and lubricating oils-:-subjects to 
be more fully spoken of hereafter. 


Prodlict No. 4 is the charcoal remaining in 
the retort ; it is used as an article of fuel, or 
as a reducing agent in metallurgy. 

We have reason to believe that some at least 
of these secondary products of dry distillation 
were known to the ancient Egyptians, who are 
said to have employed crude pyroligneous acid, 
containing creasote, as a flesh preserver in em- 
balming their dead ; according to others, they 
used nisitive bitumen, or our present petroleum, 
From a limited experience in embalming, we 
believe crude light petroleum, or purified 
commercial oils — in that case charged with 
some creasote — to be well adapted for preser- 
vation, being injected into the- veins in the 
usual manner. Be this as it may, it is only of 
late that the finer and more subtle qualities of 
tar, whether native or obtained by the distilla- 
tion of wood, bituminous coal, or turf, have 
been brought to light This hitherto ill-reputed, 
filthy compound has been shown to contain 
quite a number of bodies most useful in the 
arts and manufactures. For this reason it has 
not only attracted the eyes of the scientific 


world, but promises to become hereafter an 
almost boundless source of domestic comfort 
and happiness. 

Ingredients op Beech- wood Tab. 

Beichenbach; an Austrian chemist, while 
operating upon beech-wood tar in the years 
1830-85, discovered and isolated the following 
ingredients : — 

Light Oil, or Eupione, from «v$, good, and nltav, 
fat, is an inodorouSj insipid, limpid, colorless 
liquid of the specific gravity 0.655 ; it burns 
with a brilliant fiame, and is miscible with 
other oils and ether. It boils at 116° F. Its 
composition is C^Hg. Frankland considers" 
eupione to consist principally of hydride of 
amyle. The less volatile portions of the 
lighter oil contain wood-spirit, acetone, and the 
hydrocarbons, benzole, toluol^, and xylole; 
these latter may be removed by agitation with 
sulphuric acid with which they form colligated 
acids. Beichenbach gave it the name quoted, 
under the impression that it was a distinct 


organic substance, and not a mixture of many 
different liquids, boiling at different tempera- 
tures, as has since been shown. Its composi- 
tion will be noticed when we consider it as one 
of the coal oils. 

Heavy Oil. — This is collected after the eu- 
pione has almost ceased to distil over. It is a 
fatty mixture, containing some of the sub- 
stances belonging to the light oil, and several 
oils heavier than water, namely :— 

Ptcamarj from pix and amarus, is a viscid, 
colorless, oily liquid of an intensely bitter taste. 
To this principle tar owes its bitterness. 

Kapnomore, from «a/tvoj, smoke, and (lolpa^ part. 
— This forms a colorless oil, having a taste 
like ginger, and producing a sense of suffoca- 
tion. Besides these components, the heavy 
tar-oils contain creasote and paraffine, about to 
be described, and some other compounds ex- 
tracted at a higher temperature by Laurent, 
such as chrysene ^CigH^ and pyrene sxCgoH,,. 

Creosote.— C,;E,fi^== HO,C„H,0 (?) Its pre- 
paration is tedious. The heavier portions of 
the oil obtained from wood-tar after being 


washed with a solution of carbonate of soda, 
are submitted to distillation, by which they 
are further separated into a portion lighter 
than water, and into another which sinks in 
this liquid. This heavier oil is then treated 
with a solution of potash of specific gravity 
1.12. By this means the creasote is dissolved 
and the greater part of the hydrocarbons which 
accompanied it are separated. The alkaline 
solution, after being decanted from the hydro- 
carbons, is boiled gently in an open basin, with 
a view to oxidize a portion of the impurities. 
When cold, dilute sulphuric acid in slight 
excess is added to the liquid, by which means 
the creasote is set at liberty. To purify it, it 
has to be redistilled with water, again treated 
with concentrated solution of potash, then with 
dilute sulphuric acid, and then redistilled with 
water. Finally, the creasote must be digested 
upon chloride of calcium and distilled by itself. 
It will then have the boiling point 398° F., and 
does not become brown by keeping. When 
pure it is an oily, colorless, neutral fluid, ex- 
hibiting a strong, peculiar smoky odor, and 


aharp, burning taste. Its specific gravity is 
1.057 ; its boiling point 898° F. It is inflam- 
mable, soluble in acetic acid, alcohol, ether, and 
benzole, and coagulates albumen instantly. 

It forms- a large part of the heavy oil of tar 
passing over toward the end of distillation; the 
nauseous smell of tar or of native petroleum, 
is mainly due to this substance. Oreasote is 
but slightly soluble in water; it has most 
powerful antiseptic properties. Thus, a piece 
of flesh steeped in a very dilute solution of it, 
dries up into a mummy-like substance, which 
thence refuses to putrefy. Tongues and hams 
maybe almost instantly cured by immersing 
them in a mixture of one part of oreasote, and 
one hundred parts of water oj brine. Dentists 
employ it for the purpose of relieving tooth- 
ache arising from decaying teeth. In a very 
diluted form it is a most valuable application 
in cases of fetid ulcers, hospital gangrene, and 
many cutaneous affections, as itch, &c. In the 
smallest quantities it prevents or stops the 
fermentation of wine, cider, beer, &o. It is 
this substance which imparts to wood smoke, 


produced by incomplete combustion, its quali- 
ties of preserving meat. The eyes of many a 
poor wretch of boarding-house experience 
testify to its pungent properties, as he sheds 
compulsory tears over a bad fire. • The crea- 
sote at present most found in commerce is 
either prepared direct from coal, or from petro- 
leum during the process of purification, and 
has a dark color generally. Wood and coal 
creasote, though distinct bodies, exhibit, in 
some respects, identical properties ; both are of 
course dangerous poisons. Wood creasote is 
probably a homologue of coal creasote. 

Coal tar creasote, syn. with phenic or car- 
bolic acid,, hydrated oxide of phenyl, and iphQ" 
nol,«=:C„Ho03«HO,C„H30. Specific gravity 
« 1.065 ; boils at 369^ F. It forms also a pro- 
duct of the distillation of gum benzoine, of the 
resin of the XarUhorrhoea hastilis. Steedeler 
found it in the urine of the cow. Its solutions 
do not redden litmus paper. A drop of it let 
fall upon paper produces a transient greasy 
stain. If a splinter of deal be dipped into a 
solution of phenic acid and then into nitric or 


hydrochloric, the wood as it dries becomes blue. 
Phenic acid, when heated with ammQnia in a 
sealed tube, is partly converted into water and 
aniline ; with caustic potash it forms a crystal- 
line compound. It is now more particularly 
employed as a valuable permanent dye-stuff 
for silk and woollen fabrics. Carbolic acid, 
when treated with nitric acid at a moderate 
heat, yields carbozotic or picric acid of a yellow 
color ; by concentrating this liquor by evapo- 
ration, we obtain yellow, scaly crystals. Picric 
acid is intensely bitter, like quinine, and may 
prove a good remedy for intermittent fever. 
Ale and beer have been repeatedly found to 
be- adulterated witb it. Like all the tar colors, 
its dyeing qualities when in solution are most 
intense, i. e., a very small weight of the mate- 
rial goes very far. Silk and woollen goods, 
without further preparation, when brought 
into the solution even cold, assume a magnifi- 
cent yellow color, throwing far into the shade 
those obtained from other dyes. Cotton fibre 
affords less attraction for the dye. Picric or 
trinitrophenic acid, as it is often called, may, 


however, be obtained from a great variety of 
substances, when acted upon by hot nitric acid, 
such as indigo, aniline, saligenine, salicylous and 
salicylic acids, salicine, phloridzine, silk, aloes, 
coumarine, and many gum-resins, etc. Picric 
acid has the composition (H0,C„H,(N0J30). 
It may be fused to a yellowish oil, and even 
be partially sublimed, but if suddenly heated 
it explodes. 

Paraffine pv tar-wax is another useful and 
interesting body. It comes over toward the 
last stages, when crude tar is rectified. It is 
particularly abundant in beech tar, but occurs 
in the tar of both animal and vegetable sub- 
stances, and in all kinds of American petro- 
leum. Its specific gravity is 0.870, and it fuses 
at 110.7° F. It is a pearly white, tasteless, and 
inodorous solid, miscible when melted, in all 
proportions, with fixed and volatile oils; the 
strongest and most corroding acids and alkalies 
have no effect upon it, whence its name, from 
parum, affinis. 

It burns with a bright, white flame, without 
smoke. It is now much employed as a mate- 

98 OOAL on. AHB FSTBOLinif. 

rial for candleB, which for matchless purity and 
lustre are without a rirali the best and most 
oosdj of wax tapers not excepted. Faraffine 
possesses many properties which render it nse- 
f al in the laboratory. It may be advantageously 
sabstituted fOT oil in baths, as it endnres a high 
temperature without evaporating or emitting 
-any unpleasant odor. Bibulous paper, after 
being soaked in it, may be kept several weeks 
in concentrated sulphuric acid without under- 
going the slightest alteration. Hence paraffine 
forms an excellent coating to labels; hydro- . 
fluoric acid, even, does not act upon it except 
it be heated. It appears also to be useful in 
preserving fruits. Apples, pears, &c., coated 
with it retain all their freshness during many 
months. Perhaps it will be proved that flowers 
might thus be likewise preserved. 

Faraffine is now most abundantly obtained 
by distillation from cannel coal, or native petro- 
leum, when it comes over with certain isomeric 
oils, passing into the receiver toward the close 
of distillation. In other words, the oily mix- 
ture which remains after most of the photogenic 


oils have passed over, and from which the solid 
paraffine may be obtained, is called paraffine 
oil. For experimental purposes on a small 
scale, paraffine may be most readily prepared 
by distilling beeswax with lime. 

Asphalt, or pitch, is the fixed residue left 
after distilling tar; like the native asphalt, it 
is used for varnishes and as an ingredient for 
making lampblack, which latter is again em- 
ployed in preparing printers^ and lithographers' 

Beichenbach, however, did not yet procure 
any of these substances in quantities sufficient 
to turn his important discoveries to practical 
advantage. Mansfield and Young, of practical 
England, took out patents, in 1848, for pre- 
paring, out of coal tar, obtained as a bi-product 
in gas establishments, paraffine and certain oils 
suitable for photogenic and lubricating pur- 




The products obtainable from coal are still 
more numerous than those from wood ; many 
of them differ essentially, as would be naturally 
inferred from the different nature and compo- 
sition of the material from which they are 
derived. Wood being rich in oxygen, and 
poor in nitrogen, furnishes products containing 
much acetic acid and little ammonia, exhibiting 
hence an acid reaction. C!oal and animal mat- 


ters, containing, on the contrary, much nitrogen 
and but little oxygen, yield a good deal of 
ammonia, imparting to the products an alkaline 
reaction. Goal tar has of late been shown to 
contain — 

1. Acid oils, soluble in alkalies, such as pot- 
ash, &c.. 


2. Alkaline oils, sol able in acids, such as 

3. Neutral oils not affected by alkalies and 
some acids. 

No. 1 consists essentially of carbolic acid or 
coal creasote =» CjjH^Oj, together with small 
quantities of the following acids, viz : rosolic, 
brunolic, acetic, butyric. 

No. 2 constitutes but a small bulk of the 
mass, and consists chiefly of ammonia ^NH,, 
aniline, syn. with phenylamine^NCijHy, and 
leucoline, syn. with quinoline— N,Ci3,E[^ 

Both of the latter furnish a base for the most 
beautiful dyes, representing all the colors of the 
solar spectrum or rainbow, if the yellow shade, 
obtained from coal creasote, as previously de- 
scribed, is included. 

Besides, traces of the following substances 
have been detected, viz: — 

Ethylamine, Lutidine, 

Methylamine, Cumidine, 

Picoline, Pyrrole. 

No. 3, comprising coal oils proper, is com- 


posed of a great variety of hydrocarbons, both 
liquid and solid, the latter being held in solu- 
tion. All are of different volatilities, viz., boil 
at different temperatures. 

A. Alcohol series of hydrocarbons — 
Hydride of Amyle«CioH„, boils at 102° F. 
Hydride of Caproyle= C„Hi^ boils at 154° P. 
Hydride of (Enanthyle= Cj^H^e, boils at 208° F. 
Hydride of Capryle«Ci,Hj8, boils at 246° F. 

B. Benzole series of hydrocarbons — • 
Benzole=C^H^, boils at 177° F. 
Toluole^Cj^Hg, boils at 280° F. 
Xylole=CioHjo, boils at 263° F. 
Cumole-CigHijj, boils at 299° F. 
Cymole=CaoHi^, boils at 841° F. 

C. ParaflSne series of solid hydrocarbons. 
Paraj^ne= (empirically) CnHn. Its rational 

formula is not known, but it appears to be a 
homologue of olefiant gasssC^H^. Its specific 
gravity is 0.870. It fuses at 110.7° F. Its 
boiling point is upwards of 418° (?). 

Naphthaline^ C^B^^. Specific gravity 1 .153 ; 
fusing point 174° ; boiling point 428°. Beau- 
tiful red and blue colors, rivalling those from 


aniline, have lately been obtained from this 
pearly-white solid. 

Paranaphthaline, syn. with anthracene, =■ 
C30H13, i. e., it forms, according to Dumas and 
Laurent, a polymere of naphthaline. Ander- 
son's analysis leads to the formula CjjHiq. 
Fusing point 416°; boiling point 570^ It 
forms a white crystalline solid. 


These two solids were obtained by Laurent 
in the latter stages of the distillation of fatty 
and of resinous bodies, and in that of coal tar. 




Naphthaline and paranaphthaline are 
formed when organic substances are decom- 
posed at a high temperature, as in gas works, 
where they frequently incrust the pipes lead- 
ing from the retorts. 

ParafiBne accompanies the heavier coal oils 
produced at a more moderate temperature; 
from this fact it will be perceived at once that 
the manufacture of illuminating gas and of 
paraffine oils can never be advantageously con- 
ducted at one and the same time. . 


Distillation of Coal Tar. 

In distilliog coal tar over a free fire, or by 
passing steam through the retorts, one of the 
first products which goes into the receiver 
is a light, very mobile fluid, known as crude 
naphtha. Washing, first with dilute sulphuric 
acid, to remove the basic oils, and next with 
potassa liquor, to remove any acid oils present, 
and repeated distillation of the purified mix- 
ture, furnishes the* so-called rectified naphtha, 
of which benzole or benzine forms one of the 
most abundant and useful substances. 

Benzole was originally obtained by Faraday 
from the liquid produced by the compression 
of oil gas, and named bicarburet of hydrogen- 
Benzole may be easily procured in small 
quantities by distilling one part of benzoic 
acid with three parts of quicklime; the dis- 
tillate should be agitated with a weak solution 
of potash, and the benzole which rises to the 
surface be dried by digestion upon chloride of 
calcium; after which it may be obtained pure 


by redistillation. Benzoic acid yields about a 
third of its weight of benzole. 

From coal naphtha — the cheapest and most 
abundant source of benzole— it may be pro- 
cured pure by repeated rectifications, and 
exposing the product to a cold of 32® F., when 
it solidifies in transparent crystals or camphor- 
like masses. The other hydrocarbons asso- 
ciated remain liquid at that tempera- 
ture. Two gallons of naphtha furnish thus a 
pint of pure benzole. Even the commercial, 
impure, and diluted benzole or coal naphtha 
constitutes a superior menstruum for oils, 
resins, and fats, which renders it suitable for 
family use in removing stains from silksj 
woollen and cotton fabrics, carpets, &o.* A 
solution of one part of wax i^nd one of rosin, 
in two parts of naphtha, forms an excellent 
furniture polish. 

Naphtha, containing no oxygen, may be 

* Ji. fluid now usually sold in drugshops for tliis pur-' 
pose, and labelled benzine, we find to consist merely of 
the more volatile constituents of petroleum ; ^t answers 
in a measure the purpose for which it is designed. 


advantageously employed for preserving potas- 
sium, sodium, manganese, and other oxidizable 
metals. Care should be taken, however, first 
to ascertain whether it is truly anhydrous, i. c, 
deprived of water, otherwise serious explosions 
might occur. 

By its' own evaporation it keeps off insects 
from zoological collections or stuffed animals. 
Mansfield introduced benzine into the English 
market more especially as a solvent of caout- 
chouc and gutta percha. The solution is used 
in rendering cloth and other fabrics water- 
proof; also in the manufacture of syringes, 
surgical instruments, &c. 

It replaces oil of turpentine, ether, &c., in 
preparation of varnishes and paints.* 

Being very volatile and higjily inflamms^ble, 
it is even more dangerous than turpentine. 
Hence explosions of lamps and conflagrations 
in storehouses have been frequent. The law 
•ought to prohibit its storage in the very hearts 
of our cities, and should regulate its shipping 
by railroads and vessels, in order to protect 
human life. Since many of the component 


parts of coal oil assume the form of vapor at 
any temperature above zero^ it is evident that we 
cannot too carefully guard against those acci- 
dents so common to explosive cdmpounds. 
Its volatile nature renders it as dangerous as 
alcohol Shall the late terrible catastrophe at 
Philadelphia pass by unheeded, or will the 
public, taught by sad experience, at length 
show their appreciation of these facts? 

Naphtha and petroleum exposed to the atmo- 
sphere gradually thicken or solidify, for, like 
many of the essential drying oils, they take up 
oxygen and form resins or gums. Painters 
and artists mix their colors with drying oils, 
such as turpentine, poppy, nut, and flaxseed 

Benzole, when treated with concentrated 
nitric acid, forms nitrobenzole or artificial oil 
of bitter almonds, used'n the art of perfumery. 

The following formula will render this pro- 
cess clear: — 

/ \ " V 

* Benzole -|- Nitric Aoid. sx Nitrobenzole + Water. 


By means of nitric acid all the members of 
the benzole series may be separated from the 
amyle series of hydrocarbons. 

Nitrobenzole or "Essence de Mirbane," as it 
has been styled, is largely used for scenting 
fancy soaps, for which purpose, being less 
affected by alkalies, it is more suitable than the 
genuine oil. For confectionery shops it is 
still more preferable, since it never contains, 
like the other, traces of prussio acid — a fearful 

Nitrobenzole may be readily transformed into 
aniline, to which, in connection with the justly 
celebrated tar colors, we shall direct the atten- 
tion of the reader in a separate chapter. 

As the distillation goes on and the tempera- 
ture rises, the heavier and less volatile oils 
come over, which may, as such, be disposed of 
to machine shops, or; by redistillation, be 
changed into light oil and paraffine. 

At laoJ the dark-colored paraffine oils appear, 
which are so much charged with paraffine that, 
by exposure in open vats, they deposit this 
body in white scales. 


In the still remains a highly carbonaceous 
residue, or artificial asphalt. 

This new branch of industry, arising from 
the discovery of facts relative to the distillation 
of vegetable matter, which were hitherto un- 
known, begaj;^ to prosper and to develop itself 
rapidly, especially since it was found that not 
only coal but such abundant material as peat, 
and many calcareous schists, would likewise 
yield oils. 

Indeed, science established the fact, that, in 
the process of carbonization, all vegetable and 
animal tissues furnish some identical products. 

Thus, pafaflSne results from the preparation 
of bone black, and also enters into the compo- 
sition of soot, and even tobacco smoke. 

In many countries, mighty layers of bitumi- 
nous, rocks, hitherto barren and unprofitable, 
could thus be turned into an immense capital. 
Again, the peat swamps of Ireland constitute 
a seventh part of the surface of the whole 
country ; peat, as a fuel, situated as it was in 
the vicinity of the rich English coal mines, was 


valueless, and, in an agricultural point of view, 
a curse to the country. Now, the picture was 
reversed, as thousands of diligent hands, while 
furnishing huraan society with most useful pro- 
ducts, were producing for themselves their 
daily bread. And, further still, pn the conti- 
nent of Europe, as in Germany, France, &c., 
where the production of animal oils and fats is 
meagre, large tracts of lands were before culti- 
vated with plants yielding oil-bearing seeds, 
such as rape, flaxseed,. oamelina, sativa (golden 
pleasure), &c., upon which wheat and other 
grains may now be raised. * 

Tallow and animal oils, employed for candle 
and soap making, lubricators, &c., may be 
turned to other account ; indeed, chemistry has 
commenced to convert some animal fats into 
artificial butter, which, at least, for frying and 
baking purposes, proves highly valuable. The 
following results, obtained by chemical analysis, 
may be Jaken as the average quantity of pro- 
ducts derived from the distillation of schists 
and turf: — 



One hundred parts of a bitaminous slate of 
Wurtemberg yielded — 

Tar ' 9.68 

"Water and ammonia . . 8.33 

Gas 12.36 

Eesidue (coke, rocky matters) 68.68 


One hundred parts of the above tar furnished — 
Light oil or photagen • . 24.18 

Heavy or lubricating oil 



Carbon residue or asphalt 

Gas and loss 







One hundred parts of peat or turf from Han- 
over, dried in the air, yielded — 

Tar 9.06 

Ammoniacal liquor . . . 40.00 

Coke 85.32 

Gas and loss .... 15.62 



One hundred parts of this tar gave — 
Light oil .... 19.46 

Heavy oil 
Creasote and loss 






Whence by a simple calculation we find that 
100 parts of this turf will furnish — 

Light oil 1.76 parts 

Heavy oil . . . . 1.77 " 
Paraffine .... 6.30 '' 
Asphalt .... 1.56 " 
The chemical works established in the county 
of Kildare, Ireland, are capable of working up 
one hundred t6ns of peat per day. Every ton 
of peat yields three pounds of paraffine, two 
gallons of volatile oil, adapted for burning, 
and one gallon of fixed oil, for lubricating 
purposes, all separated from the five to six gal- 
lons of tar furnished by one ton of peat. Be- 
sides, each ton of peat yields sixty -five gallons 


of ammoniacal liquor, containing a list of 
useful substances ; for all practical purposes it 
suffices to mention ammonia, apetic acid, and 
pyroxilic spirit, &c., already described in con- 
nection with wood tar. 

One ton of peat affords — 
5^ lbs. of ammonia, 
5 lbs. of acetic acid, and 
8 lbs. of naphtha. 

Besides, some of the tar residue or asphalt 
may be converted into a valuable grease or 
lubricator for the axles of carriages, railroad 
cars, &c. Peat tar itself is an excellent pre- 
ventive of the fouling of ships' bottoms, suc- 
'cessfuUy resisting those marine incrustations, 
whether of an animal or vegetable nature, so 
detrimental and injurious to shipping. An 
experiment, made in Scotland, proved that 
one side of a schooner, to which it was applied, 
presented at the end of six months the same 
clean appearance as when laid on, while the 
other side, on which was put the usual compo- 
sition or paint, became so fouled as to require 
cleaning during that time. 


Variation of ike Products of Distillation^ ac- 
cording to Different Temperatures. — Experience 
teaches that t^Q relative proportion and the 
chemical nature of the products of distillation 
vary not only with the different materials em- 
ployed, whether wood, coal, or turf, but also 
according to the temperature to which one and 
the same substance is subjected. Thus, if we 
desire to obtain the greatest amount of perma- 
nent gas from coal, it ought to be rapidly decom- 
posed — i. «., heated to a temperature of 800 to 
1,000 degree}^ F. If it be our purpose to pro- 
cure the greatest amount of fluids, no tempera- 
ture above 700 degrees F. is admissible. 
Hence, it follows that the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, and that of photogenic oils, 
cannot be combined with economy; neither 
can the process of tar and coke making with 
the production of volatile oils, as was at first 
imagined to be practicable. 

Coal heated to a strong red heat, 980 degrees 
F., yields a maximum quantity of tar, but the 
&tty bodies separable therefrom by fractional 
distillation are mainly naphtha (benzole) and 


naphthaline, a crjstallizable solid, but no pa- 
raifine. Neither of the first two are desirable 
constituents of iamp-oils. The cj^ief ingredients 
of these are compounds evolved after the' 
naphtha ceases to come over, and before naph- 
thaline is .produced. That is, to say again 
what was previously mentioned, the manufac- 
ture of photogenic oils terminates where that 
of illuminating gas commences. 

ParaflSnized oils are generated from coal be- 
tween 850 and 700 deg. F. The manufacture 
of coal oils may be advantageously accom- 
plished at a much lower temperature, by per- 
mitting super-heated steam to flow through 
the retorts, or by conducting the distillation in 
a partial- vacuum, like the boiling down of 
cane sugar. * . 

The retorts, in which the distillation of coal 
is conducted, are of iron or clay, and shaped 
much like those in gas works. The exit tube 
for the products, inserted at the end opposite 
to the mouth, is of considerable length, and 
kept cool by a constant stream of cold water. 
The gases, after passing through this pipe. 


enter Into a large iron cylinder filled with 
coke, which removes the last traces of the tar' 
they contain; thence they are suffered to es- 
cape into a chimney of strong draft. 

The liquid products of distillation flow into 
a large reservoir, kept at a temperature of 
86° R, in which tar separates from the am- 
moniacal waters ; these waters are mixed with 
the residue of the large retorts, and furnish a 
rich manure, or are turned into sal-ammoniac. 

It has been calculated that in England alone 
4000 tons of this salt are annually thus ob- 
tained. This important compound was, at one 
time, imported from Egypt, where it was first 
prepared by the distillatibn of camels' dung, 
near the temple of Jupiter Ammon, from which 
it takes its name. 

The tar and its crude oils are next pumped 
into a purifying apparatus, m^de of cast-iron, 
and mixed with a few per cent, of copperas, to 
free it from sulphide of ammonium. If the 
coal contains a good deal of sulphur at first, it 
is sprinkled over with caustic lime before being 
distilled, as sulphur compounds impart to 


barning coal a very bad odor. After this the 
tar is brought into regular stills, holding seve- 
ral hundred gallons, and heated over a free fire 
or jyith superheated steam. The oily volatile 
products of distillation are condensed in a 
leaden coil, 30 to 40 feet long. 

The following products may be separately 
collected by a fractional distillation : — * 

1. A thin, volatile, Tery inflammable liquid, 
lighter than water (spec. grav. 0.8) — i, e., crude 

2. An oily mixture, heavier than water, 
called solar oil, which continues to come over 
until the temperature approaches 400°; it is 
best suited for a burning fluid for lamps (ar- 
gands) with a round wick, allowing the air 
access into the interior of the- flame. 

S. Paraflinized oil, so called from its con- 
taining largely paraflSne ; it is well-adapted as 
a lubricator. 

Mixtures of 1 and 2 burn very readily, and 
those of Nos. 2 and 3 furnish an excellent ma- 
chine oil. 

^ Dr. AntiseU'g Treatise on Coal Oils. 


The rest of No. 8, not used for mixing, is 
exposed in vats to a low temperature for seve- 
ral weeks ; when it crystallizes it is submitted 
to the hydraulic press, melted again, and puri- 
fied with concentrated sulphuric acids and po- 
tassa solution. 

The residue left in the still forms a tarry 
mass, which by means of caustic soda^ may be 
converted into a black soapy grease used as a 
lubricator of wagons and railroad cars. 




Having, on a former occasion, already 
alluded 4;o the qualities and chemical composi- 
tion of burning and lubricating oils, showing 
that these are neutral compounds, being, m 
other words, indifferent towards acids as well 
as alkalies, while the pernicious admixtures 
readily combine with these chemicals, the prin- 
ciple and methods of purification suggest 
themselves as deserving of a small portion of 
our attention. 

In addition to the redistillation (or rectifica- 
tion) of crude tar oils, whereby traces of tar and 


Other highly carbonaceous solids and liquids 
suspended in the oil are removed, chemical 
purifiers are employed; amongst these are 
principally sulphuric acid and caustic soda. 
The oil is agitated or churned for aeveral 
hours with about five per cent, of its weight of 
sulphuric acid^ at a temperature of from 75^ 
to 90^ F. It is then allowed to settle,^ and 
drawn off into a second purifier, and mized 
with five per cent, of caustic soda solution (or 
lime-waler), and the whole stirred for two or 
three hours, and left to repose; having gone 
through this process, the oil is once more dis- 
tilled. Sulphuric acid unites with several 
heavy hydrocarbons and detaches them from 
the lighter oils upon which it has no action ; 
the soda answers the double purpose of neu- 
tralizing an excess of acid, and of removing 
creasote or carbolic acid. 

* Manganate of potassa and nitrio acid are used for the 
same purpose ; others purify each separate oil with six 
per cent, of sulphuric acid ; one-eighth per cent, bichro- 
mate of potassa ; two and one-half per cent, muriatic 



Brief History op Bituminous, and Kero- 
sene OR Empyreumatio Oils. 

It is on the continent of Europe, where 
whale and other animal oils and fats are high 
in price, and the supply of vegetable oils in- 
sufficient, that the distillation of natural tar 
or asphalt and bituminous slate was first re- 
sorted to in order to obtain illuminating oils. 
As early as 1819 the celebrated savant, De 
Saussure, in Switzerland, distilled bituminous 
limestone, and pronounced the oil obtained 
therefrom identical with that derived from the 
native petroleum of Amiano, in Italy. For 
more than twenty years past lamp oils were 
extensively prepared in Germany and France 
from wood, rosin, schists, and bitumen . or 

Tar oils obtained from animal substances, 
containing sulphur and phosphorus, have a 
penetrating offensive odor, and are tedious to 
purify, and hence less fit for practical purposes. 

The manufecture of bituminous oils in Great 


Britain and this country is of much more 
recent growth, because the extensive pursuit 
of the whale fishery supplied all the wants 
of the market. * Still, the manufacture of 
volatile oils from coal was first practised in 
England, and the process was in some respects 
new; for we must call to mind that it is 
only quite lately that chemists look upon oils 
procured from coal, wood, native bitumen, &c., 
as analogous, if not absolutely identical pro- 
ducts. This ignorance must now surprise us 
still more when we consider the origin of the 
material and recollect that even before the pro- 
duction of illuminating gas, large amounts of 
coal were distilled simply to obtain tar to satisfy 
the necessities of the English navy and mercan- 
tile marine — wood tar being, though preferable, 
too expensive. The English process of obtain- 
ing these useful oils from the distillation of 
coal was, from selfish motives, kept secret at 
first, and even samples of oils withheld from the 
exhibitions of all nations at Paris in 1855. 

The first empyreumatic oil was manufactured 
in this country in 1850, at Brooklyn, New York, 


by distilling wood and rosin together, a jet of 
high pressure steam being conducted through 
the retorts. The writer visiting the factory, and 
being consulted about its utility as a burning 
fluid, found it would not burn without smoke, 
even in lamps consuming readily oil of turpen- 
tine. There was at that time no lamp invented 
with a sufficient draft to bum completely such 
highly carbonaceous oils, whence wood and coal 
oils, as light-furnishing mediums, found at first 
but a slow access into dwellings. The earlier 
constructed lamps separated a very fine carbon 
or soot, which, settling imperceptibly upon the 
faces of a company, often presented a ludicrous 
spectacle. These oils were in earlier times sent 
to market in a crude and unrefined state, and 
consequently were ill calculated to win public 
favor. Their bad creasotelike odor was enough 
to cause their rejection at first by persons of 
delicate sensibilities ; but gradually every ob- 
stacle was overcome, and little more could be 
objected against their general adoption and 
The manu&cture of coal oil in this country 


was first introduced in 1853, and was generally 
confined to districts where highly bituminous 
(cannel) coal could be mined at a cheap price. 
Hence the States of Kentucky, Virginia, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois became 
great centres for its manufacture. 

The Lucesco works in Westmoreland County, 
Pa., were perhaps the largest in the country, pro- 
ducing 6000 gallons of crude oil a day, which is 
also rectified there. At Brooklyn N. Y., were 
located the New York kerosene oil works, pro- 
ducing and refining 1000 gallons of oil daily. 
This factory was perhaps theonly one far removed 
from the source of material, but New York 
being the great commercial market and a sea 
board city, the saving of expenses for transpor- 
tation of the refined oil, compensated for extra 
outlays in shipping coal. In Franklin County, 
Va., near the Kanawha River, was a factory pro- 
ducing 1000 gallons of oil per day. The refin- 
ing operation was conducted at Maysville, Ky. 
In 1860 the total number of factories in the 
United States was over sixty. 


Comparison of Artificial Products with 

THOSE found in NATURE. 

Kataral prodacts, closely resembling the 
artificial ones alluded to, hare been found in 
inaDj localities all oyer the world for ages past. 
Some escape as gases from crevices of rocks ; 
others are liquid, and exude through the soil 
in drops, or spout out through fissures in the 
rocks like fountains; others, again, of a solid 
shape, are imbedded beneath the earth's sur- 
face. The complete chemical analogy between 
both classes was not dreamed of for some time, 
and was only ascertained step by step in the 
gradual progress of science. Thus the close 
connection, if not identity, of the natural pro- 
duct, long known under the synonymous 
names of naphtha, mineral naphtha, petroleum, 
rock oil, and seneca oil, with coal oil, was 
experimentally established, its importance ap- 
preciated, and its value understood, long after 
the same article, artificially produced, had 
attracted, by its vast commercial value, the 


notice of the civilized world. The following 
table will enable the general reader to get a 
comparative view of the two classes of artificial 
and native products corresponding to one 


1. niominating gas. 

2. Thin or light oil of coal 
tar, containing benzole, &o. 

3. Thick or heayy oil of 
coal tar, containing paraf- 

4. Artificial asphaltnm 
(pitch of pit coal.) 



1. Inflammable gases (sa- 
cred fire of the Brahmins), 
issuing here and there from 
crcYices of the rocks. 

2. Naphtha, a thin and 
nearly colorless variety of 
rook oil oozing out of the 
earth in Italy and Persia, 
and containing benzole. 

3. Mineral tar, found in 
many places in Fersiay Ame- 
rica, and France. It is 
darker and more viscid than 
rock on, and contains paraf- 

4. Natural asphaltum (or 
pitch of Judea), found in 
the Dead 8ea, and other 
Asiatic seas. It contains 




5. Ammoniacal empjien- 
matio liquid. 

^ 6. Coke as prodnced and 
seen in all gas works. It is 
a porous and light carbon. 


5. Ammonia, issuing in 
watery yapor, associated 
with boracio acid, from the 
earth of Tuscany. 

6. Anthracite coal in im- 
mense beds in Fennsylya- 
nia. It is a compact and 
heayy carbon, owing to the 
enormous pressure to which 
it has been exposed. 

The following organic substances are allied 
to the native bitumens mentioned in the pre- 
vious table. 

1. Elastic bitumerij mineral caoutchouc, — This 
curious body has hitherto been found in three 
places: In a lead mine at Castleton in Derby- 
shire, at Montrelais in France, and in Massa- 
chusetts in America. In the latter localities it 
occurs in the coal series. It is fusible, and 
resembles in many respects the other bitumens. 

2. Betinite or Betinasphalt, — It is found in 
brown coal, and constitutes a fossil resin, 


whicli has a yellow color, is fusible and in- 
flammable, and largely soluble in alcohol. 

8. HatcJietin^* similBX to the last named, is 
met with in mineral coal-beds at Merthyr 
Tydvil, and near Loch Fyne in Scotland. 

4. Idrialin is found associated with native 
cinnabar, and is extracted from the ore by oil 
of turpentine. It constitutes a white crystal- 
line substance, composed of C^Hj^O; it is 
generally associated with a hydrocarbon idril, 
which contains O^Hj^. 

5. Ozoherite^ or fossil wax, occurs in Molda- 
via and Switzerland in bituminous shale or 
brown coal. It is brownish and has a pearly 
lustre. It fuses below 212^ F., is easily 
soluble in turpentine, but with difficulty in 
alcohol and ether. 




Petroleum is named from petra^ a rock, and 
oleum, oil. This highly important native com' 
pound, analogous in every respect to the kero- 
sene oils just described, will next engage our 
attention. It is, like these, a mixture of a great 
many chemically different substances, and, as 
proved by its composition, is evidently of or- 
ganic origin.. 

Petroleum and its manifold products find an 
almost endless application in science, art, and 
in practical life. 

It is used in the preparation of paints and 
varnishes, the lighter portion or naphtha dis- 
tilled from it, dissolving caoutchouc, camphor, 
fatty and resinous bodies generally, and when 


hot even sulphur and phosphorus. It forms a 
substitute for fish-oil in tanning. Petroleum 
soap is already a favorite toilet article. 

Aniline and its brilliant colors may perhaps 
be prepared from the waste petroleum after 
refining it. Petrpleum fo|*ms an already valu- 
able caloric. 

Thomas Shaw, in an article in the."Ame- 
xican Gas Light Journal," in which he advo- 
cates the economy of the use of oil as fuel, says, 
"that the heating value of 100 pounds of coal 
average quality, spec. grav. 1.279, is equivalent 
to raising 812,807 pounds of water 1° 0, The 
heating value of 100 pounds of petroleum is 
equivalent to raising 1,231,600 pounds of 
water 1° C, making the heating value of coal 
as compared with petroleum, as 1 is to 1.51. 
This is the calculated value of their component 

It famishes, as generally known, photogenic 
and lubricating fluids. It has proved to be 
an efficient remedy like ordinary coal oil, es- 
pecially in ulcers and cutaneous diseases. Pe- 


troleum vapors are said to act very beneficiallj 
in protracted cases of asthma and weak lungs. 

Mr. Bobb states that the air in oil pits be- 
comes charged with vapors of. an intoxicating 

The "American Druggist's Circular and 
Chemical Gazette," in speaking of a new anaas- 
thetic, says : '^ Dr. Genges has addressed a note 
to the French Academy, giving an account of 
some interesting experiments in trying new 
agents for diminishing sensibility. He has as- 
certained that a purified kerosaline, obtained 
from common petroleum, when vaporized by 
means of heat, will be found a most valuable 

It is already well understood that amylene 
gas, closely allied to some of these hydrocar- 
bons, and which is obtained by decomposing 
chloride of amyle by fused hydrate of potash, 
acts on the system like chloroform, though 
with more dangerous effects perhaps. 

It would not appear surprising i^ in future, 
by the means pointed out by Berthelot,* vi- 

♦ Ann. de Chimie, III., XIV. 385. 


nous alcohol = (C^H^OjHO) as well as wood- 
alcohol = (OjHgOjHO), and other kinds may be 
profitably manufactured from the so-abundant 
petroleum hydrocarbons. • 

The two methods to prepare alcohols by 
synthesis from hydrocarbons are based upon — 

1st. In fixing oxygen upon those of the for- 
mula CjjnH3n+2, L c, marsh gas and its homo- 

2d. In fixing the elements of water upon 
those of the composition CgnHjn, i. e., olefiant 
gas and its homologues. 

Thus Berthelot obtained wood or methylic 
alcohol artificially by acting upon marsh gas 
by chlorine, and decomposing the chloride 
thus obtained by means of a solution of potash. 

Common or vinous alcohol may be prepared 
synthetically, by forming a solution of olefiant 
gas in oil of vitriol, which dissolves about one 
hundred and twenty times its bulk of the gas; 
then diluting the mixture, and submitting it 
to distillation. 

Chemical Composition of Petroleum. — De La 


Eue and H. Miiller* have examined the Bir- 
mese naphtha or Bangoon petroleum. 

It is obtained by sinking wells about sixty 
feet deep, in which the liquid is collected as it 
oozes out from the soil. At a common tem-* 
perature it has the consistency of goose fat ; it 
is lighter than water, and has usually a green- 
ish-brown color ; it has a slight, peculiar, but 
not unpleasant odor. It is composed almost 
entirely of volatile constituents, about 11 per 
cent, of which come off below 212° P. The 
fixed residue does not amount to more than 4 
per cent, if it be distilled in a current of super- 
heated steam. About 10 or 11 per cent of 
the volatile matters consists of solid paraffine. 
When the liquid portion is agitated with oil 
of vitriol, some of its constituents enter into 
combination with the acid, but the greater 
part remain unaltered by this agent. In the 
portion which combines with the acid, benzole, 
toluole, xylole and cumole, have been identi- 
fied, and there are several basic substances, 
which have not as yet been completely exa- 

* Proceed. Roy. Soo., VIIL 221. 


mined. The liquid, from which the hydrocar- 
bons of the benzole series have been removed 
by the action of the oil of vitriol, constitutes 
naphtha. It may be puriffed by repeated agi- 
tation with sulphuric acid, washing with water, 
and rectification from quicklime. It is then 
fit for the preservation of such alkaline metals 
as potassium, sodium, etc. ' 

Prof. Vohl has published an analysis of 
Eangoon oil. Spec. grav. 0.885. 

It yielded by distillation and rectification : — 
Illuminating oil, spec. grav. 0.830 • 40.705 


Lubricating oil 

Paraffine, fusing at eO"" F. 


Loss (carbolic acid ? etc.) 


The following analysis of Barbadoes tar was 
executed by Charles Humfrey ("Technologist," 
March, 1863):— 

The specimen was of a dark-brown color, 
very viscid, with faint pleasant smell. Spec, 
grav. 0.940, 


10 ounces gave : — * 

Water J oz. 

Crude oil, No. 1, spec. grav. 0M2' . 5 ozs. 

'' No. 2, " • 0.927 . 4 " 
Coke ' J oz. 

10 ozs. ' 

No. 1, when refined, gave four ounces of 
fine oil, of a pale color, and very sweet ; spec, 
grav. 0.908. No. 2 gave 2 J ounces of fine oil, 
of a dark color, and some empyreumatic smell ; 
spec. grav. 0.918. 

But it is on the American continent that 
the most copious petroleum springs and wells 
have been developed within the past few years. 
The principal and richest oil reservoirs are 
situated in Pennsylvania and Canada. Other 
deposits have been ascertained to exist in Ohio, 
, Western Virginia, Kentucky, New York, 
Michigan, and it is probable will be found in 
Kansas, Tennessee, Alabama, California, and 

The annexed table comprises the average 
composition of American and Canada petro- 
leum according to A. N. Tate, chemist. Liver- 



pool. These analyses were made for the 
purpose of ascertaining the quantities of the 
different products to be 'obtained from each. 
The specific gravity of the spirit and burning oil 
has been fixed at 0.735 and 0.820 respectively. 





Sp. GE. 

Sp. ge. 

Sp. gr. 

Sp. gr. 

Spirits sp. gr. 0.735 
Lamp oil sp. gr. 0.820 
Lubricating oil . . 
Paraffine .... 
Coke . ; . . . 

























Nos. 1 and 2. Pennsylvania petroleum of a 
dark greenish color, and ethereal odor. 

No. S. Canadian petroleum of a brown color 
aud garlic odor. 

No. 4. Similar to the former, and also from 
the United States; precise locality unknown. 

Pelouze and Cahours* have made a beautiful 
and thorough analysis of American petroleum, 

* Comptes Rendu, LVI. 505 ; Joum. f. pract. Chemie, 
Bd. 29, Heft 5 and 6. Annal. der Ch. and Pharm., Bd. 
LL Heft 2. 




which was exported to France where it is 
rectified. It is especially the more volatile 
constituents, boiling below 392® F., that have 
hitherto been examined into by these dis- 
tinguished chemists. They have isolated as 
many as twelve distinct hydrocarbons, all 
homologous with marsh gas C^H^, or, as it may 
be looked upon, hydride of methyle = CgHajH. 
The boiling point (/. e., the temperature at 
which it assumes a gaseous form) of the most 
volatile oil is a few degrees above 32® F.,* and 
it contains probably hydride of butyle. It is 
also found to be one of the products of the 
distillation of coal at low temperatures. The 
formulas, specific gravities, and boiling points 
of these hydrocarbons are the following: — 


Boiling Point. 


bi Butyle 


ii ■ 

" Amyle 



860 F. 


" Caproyle 



154.4 " 


« (Enanthyle 



197.6-201.2 « 


" Capryle 



240.8-244.4 " 


« Pelargyle 



276.8-280.4 " 


u j Caprinyle 
\ Rutyle 



320.0-323.6 „ 


" Hendekayle 




* Erdmann's Journ. fur Prakt. Chemie, Bd. 89, 1863. 
Heft 5 and 6, p. 360. 



Hydride of Lanryle 
" " Cocinyle 
" " Myristyle 

Not named yet . . 


24 a 

Sp. Gr. 

at 68° F. 


BoTLuro Ponrr. 

384.8-392.0O p. 
420.8-424.4 " 
456.8-464.0 « 
491.0-500.0 *^* 

Id addition to the mentioned class of hydro- 
carbons, Pelouze and Cahours found parafBne to 
be a constant ingredient of American petro- 
leum. They think it probable that there 
exists in it several solid hydrocarbons homo- 
logofts with paraffine, forming mixtures similar 
to the liquid hydrocarbon series. These 
chemists will rhake this a matter of future 

The following is the result of an analysis of 
Canadian petroleum made by Dr. S. Muspratt. 
100 parts of Enniskillen oil yielded in distilla- 
tion : — 

* The latter four have recently been described in Comp- 
tes Rendu, LVII. 62; also Jonm. fur Prakt. Chemie, 92 
Bd. 2 Heft, p. 99, Leipzig, 1864. 


Light-colored naphtha, sp. gr. 0.794 . 20 

Heavy yellow naphtha, sp. gr. 0.837 . 50 

Lubricating oil rich in paraffine . . 22 

Tar • . . ... . 5 

Charcoal 1 

Loss ......*. 2 


The Canadian oils and those of the State of 
Michigan have, like those found in South Ame- 
rica and the West Indies, an oflFensive garlicky 
odor, which distinguishes them at once from 
most oils of the United States. The bad 
smell is chiefly owing to sulphur, and Tate 
traced likewise small quantities of phosphorus 
and arsenic in the Canadian oils. 

From chemical analysis we are justified in 
considering the following difference between 
coal oils and petroleum established. 

The coal oils contain the hydrides of the 
alcohol radicals, homologous to marsh gas 
CttHa + 2, in a small proportion, but the 
hydrocarbons of the benzole, and toluole series, 
in large quantity.' 


Petroleum contains mere traces of benzole 
if any at all, but is mainly made up of the 
hydrides of the alcohol series of hydrocarbons. 

Whilst Pelouze and Cahours and others 
find no benzole in the American petroleum, 
Schorlemmer, of Manchester, on the contrary, 
states that it . contains small quantities of ben- 
zole and toluole. Mr. Murphy, of Liverpool, 
could trace no benzole in petroleum, except in 
one or two cases in minute quantity, and then 
he believed it w^is produced by decomposition 
during his experiments. 

Tate was unable to detect it in any specimen 
of the crude oil he examined, but found it in 
several specimens of the "turpentine substi- 
tute," also sold under the names of "benzine," 
and " petroleum spirits." This is obtained upon 
distilling American petroleum; the first pro- 
duct passing over has a specific gravity 0.680, 
and is called "kerosolene ;" the next is a* spirit 
somewhat heavier, and this has been called, 
though wrongly, benzine, although it may in 
many cases be used as a good substitute. Both 
the kerosolene and benzine are frequently 


collected together, and form the turpentine 
substitute above referred to. It is believed 
that the small amount of real benzine traceable 
therein results from decomposition during the 
process of distillation. 

As Mr. Schorlemmer examined these same 
lighter portions of crude petroleum, we can 
account for his having expressed a different 

We have likewise been unable to recognize 
benzole in some few American oils, neither 
could we trace it in some kinds of the naphtha 
or turpentine substitutes employed by house 
painters. A fluid sold by our druggists for 
removing grease spots, and marked benzine, 
softened but failed to dissolve India rubber, 
and upon examination by Hofmann's test 
proved to contain no real benzine. It is 
stated by some that in the Canadian oil ben- 
zole is found, but, strange as it may appear, 
we haVe been unable to procure any in the 
broker offices of New York and Philadelphia 
to examine it ourselves. Whether, at least, 
some specimens of American or Canadian oils 
are analogous to Birmese naphtha, in which De 


La Eue and Miller found benzole, toluole, etc., 
we have had no means of determining thus far. 
This is an important point in regard to the 
manufacture of aniline colors as yet generally 
imported from abroad. If American petro- 
leum does not, like the Birmese naphtha, or 
like artificial coal oil, furnish benzole, then, of 
course, no nitro-benzole, the cheapest and most 
abundant source of aniline, would be yielded. 
The small amount of the ready formed alkaloid 
present and removed by acid washings in the 
refining operations, would, perhaps, not pay the 
trouble of isolating it. 




The general principles followed in refining 
petroleum are identical with those described 
under kerosene oil. The crude oil is distilled 
in a common large iron still protected by brick- 
work to prevent the fire from playing directly 
on the still. Steam pipes are inserted into the 
still when steam is employed in the process of 
distillation. With the still a coil of iron pipes 
or condensing worm is connected, which is 
placed in a vat filled with water. This is kept 
cold until paraffine oil begins to go over, when, 
to avoid its solidifying in the worm, it is kept 
at a temperature of 80° P. 

The distillation is carried on without the 
use of steam until the remainder of the charge 
in the retort grows thick when cold. If this 


pitch is wished for, the operation is stopped at 
this point, otherwise steam is now passed into 
the neck or breast of "the retort, which produces 
an outward current through the condenser, 
carrying over the rest of oils and loaving 
behind a compact coke. 

Common or previously super-heated steam 
has also been employed, being led into the 
charge during distillation; this plan is of 
decided advantage, especially for the distilla- 
tion of the heavy oils. 

The still patented by Abraham Quinn, of 
New York City, in 1868, and which appears 
to be built upon an excellent plan, has the 
advantage of allowing the distillation to be 
carried on without interruption, a fresh supply 
of oil being constantly run into the still. 

The distillate is collected in two portions. 
The first, has a specific gravity of 0.74, and 
forms the turpentine substitute of our paint 
shops, and is falsely sold as benzine. 

The second shows a specific gravity of 0.82, 
and is well suited for lamp oil ; the balance of 


heavier oils is either transferred to the next 
charge, or kept as lubricating oil. 

These two products are then each agitated 
for some hours with five to ten per cent, of 
sulphuric acid, allowed to settle, drawn ofi^ and 
next agitated with water, and finally with five 
to ten per cent, of caustic soda liquor, specific 
gravity 1.40. After some hours' repose the 
alkali is drawn oflT, the oils once more washed 
with water, and again carefully distilled. 

During all these operations the temperature 
of the oils ought to be maintained at about 
QQo Y, The heavier portions of the distillate 
from crude petroleum form different kinds of 
lubricators. The best variety is that which 
follows after the burning oil has pass^ over. 
The residue or coke left behind in the still 
varies from five to ten per cent. 

The garlicky odor of Canadian oils can be . 
got rid of by the action of chemicals. By 
forcing them simply through such deodorizing 
mixtures as charcoal and sand the purpose 
may be attained. 


Illuminating Power of Petroleum. 

The following table, extracted from a lecture 
on artificial light by Dr. Frankland ("Chemical 
News," Feb. 21, 1863), shows the illuminating 
power of petroleum as compared with the light 
evolved by other substances. The table is 
arranged so as to show the quantity of other 
materials required to give outthe same amount 
of light as would be obtained from one gallon 
of Young's paraffine oil : — 

Young's paraffine oil 


1.00 gallon 

American petroleum, 



1.26 « 

C( (( 



1.80 " 

Paraffine candles . 


18.6 poandg 

Sperm ^ " 


22.9 " 



26.4 « 

Stearine " 


27.6 " 

Composite " 


29.5 " 

Tallow " 


89.0 " 



The next table* gives the comparative cost 
of light obtained from different illuminating 
materials, as compared with the light of twenty 
sperm candles, each burning ten hours at the 
rate of 120 grains per hour. 




A merican petroleum (i nferior) 7f 
The table given below is taken from '* Circle 
of Sciences," vol. i. p. 421, 

Wax . 


. 7 


. 6 


. 2 

Sperm oil . 

. . . 1 

Coal gas . 


Cannel gas 

.- . . 

Paraffine candles 

. 8 

ParafBne oil 

. . . 

BBSOEimoir o» Oil. 

Pbicb per 

IllTBlf 8ITT OF 

Amoukt op 

Cost op ah 


Light by 

Light prom 





OP Light ik 

9. d. 


Petroleum . 





Sperm • • • 

7 6 




Camphene . 





Rape or Colza 




' 14.50 

Whale •. . 

2 9 




* Tate's Petroleum and its Compounds, London, 1863, 




Tqe at present seemingly inexhaustible 
quantity of native bituminous oils has ren- 
dered their manufacture from any material, 
no matter how cheap and abundant, unprofit- 
able. Nature distils free of charge. Indeed, 
it has almost ruined the whaling business ; the 
old oil merchants sold their ships in many 
instances to the United States Government at 
the outbreak of the war, for the purpose of 
blockading Southern ports, and* turned their 
establishments into refineries for the purifica- 
tion of petroleum, and have been obliged greatly 
to multiply the number of stills and vats in 
tliese. Although before the present war native 
petroleum was generally unknown in the 
country, it is not to be supposed that its dig- 


covery is new ; on the contrary, it dates back 
' to the remotest antiquity. 

The liquid bitumens or petroleum, when ex- 
posed to the air, abstract oxygen therefrom, 
turning gradually into solid asphaltum ; in this 
form they were in ancient times used for build- 
ing purposes. In building the ancient city of 
Nineveh it appears that asphalt was employed 
as a mortar, and was probably prepared by 
the evaporation of petroleum. We find it alsQ 
stated that the builders of Babel used '^clay 
for bricks> and slime for mortar." (Gen. xi. 
8.) It is well known that melted asphalt, 
together with sand, constitutes a superior mix- 
ture for roofing felt, for covering floorings, 
and for sidewalks. The latter process was 
first introduced in Neufchatel, Switzerland. 
Artificially prepared, tar may be similarly 
employed, after it has been deprived of its 
oil by di3tillation. The catastrophe of Sodom, 
and Gomorrah may have had some connec- 
tion with, if not been absolutely caused by 
vast natural stores of this inflammable petro- 
leum. At least, we find immense accumula- 
tions of hardened rock oil in the centre and 


around the shores of the Dead Sea, where it 
has been converted by oxidation into rosin-like 
asphalt. The pieces floating upon its waters 
are now frequently, in the convents of Jerusa- 
lem, cut into ornaments, such as rosaries, the 
beads of which, when genuine, have a strongly 
bituminous odor. Another early and curious 
use of petroleum was made by the Egyptians, 
whose religious belief in the return of departed 
spirits caused them to revolt against the law of 
nature commanding "dust to dust," &c. Not 
only was every human being embalmed, but 
also all the animals considered as sacred. In 
many cases, native bituminous matter appears 
to have been used as a preservative, its creasote 
rendering it a very excellent one. In this age 
of steam, utilitarianism, and curiosity, many of 
these mummies have been borne away by ma- 
rauding travellers, and, in some instances, have 
been used to supply the fires of locomotives. 
Thus has nature reclaimed her dues. I^ is not 
decided whether the Egyptians obtained native 
petroleum, as they might from the Island of 
Zante, on the west coast of Greece, whose 


springs are described by Herodotus, or whether 
they prepared artificial pyroligaeous acid for 
the purpose of embalming. 

Another celebrated locality for bitumen, 
which dates back beyond the historic period, is 
Birmah, in the Rangoon district, upon the Irra- 
waddy in Northern Asia. Five hundred and 
twenty wells sunk in beds of sandy clay and 
clay slate, yield annually more than 400,000 
hogsheads of this oil, which' is also known as 
Bangoon tar or Birmese naphtha. Through- 
out the whole empire of Birmah, and many 
other parts of India, it has been used for centu- 
ries for purposes of illumination, as a medicine, 
for rendering timber weather-proof, and for 
preserving it against insects. For two centu- 
ries, Amiano and other places in the north of 
Italy, have furnished a profusion of naphtha, 
and the cities of Genoa and Parma were lighted 
with it. Over large districts in Persia no other 
illuminating material is used. The phenomena 
it presents cause the region to be called the 
Field of Fire, and made Bakoo the sacred city 
of the Ghebers, or Fire- worshippers. Ojn the 


island of Trinidad, in the West Indies, petro- 
leum exudes not only from springs and rocks 
in the usual way, but it has formed a lake two 
to three miles in circumferenee ; warm and 
liquid in the centre, where it seems always 
slowly boiling, but thickening as it recedes 
from this point, till at the margin it is cold and 
solid. Persons may walk upon it at pleasure 
when the weather is cool, but not so when 
it is hot. This Lake of Tar, as the inhabitants 
call ill; is said, by travellers, to be underlaid 
with coal. Dr. Gesner gives the following 
description of it. 

"The bitumen, of the consistence of thin 
mortar, was flowing out from the sides of a hill, 
and making its way outwards over more com- 
pact layers towards the sea. As the semi-solid 
and sulphurous mineral advances, and is ex- 
posed to the atmosphere, it becomes more solid, 
but ever continues to advance and encroach 
upon the harbor. The surface of the bitumen 
is occupied by small ponds of water, clear and 
transparent, in which there are several kinds of 
beautiful fishes. The sea, near the shore, sends 
up considerable quantities of naphtha from sub- 


terranean springs, and the water is often 
covered with oil, which reflects the colors of 
the rainbow." 

In our own country, before its colonization, 
and perhaps before its discovery by Columbus, 
petroleum was known to the Seneca Indians. 
According to a tradition among them, its ex- 
istence was revealed to one of their chiefe by 
the Great Spirit in a dream. He was directed 
to proceed to a certain spQt, where he would 
find a liquid oozing from the ground, which 
should become a healing balm to his tribe. 
They seem to have collected it chiefly from 
the surface and banks of two streams, both of 
which have since received the names of Oil 
Creek ; one being in Alleghany County, New 
York, and the other in Venango County, 
Pennsylvania. Along the borders of the latter 
there may still be seen the remains of ancient 
pits, which must have been dug by them to 
catch the exuding petroleum. They employed 
it for medicinal purposes, and in many religi- 
ous ceremonies; but its chief use was as a 
medium for dissolving the rude paints with 


which they adorned themselves. They sold it 
to the early colonists as a specific for rheuma- 
tism and various other affections. The' white 
people called it Seneca oil, after the tribe which 
chiefly used and bartered it, and considered it 
a rare and very efficacious remedy. It is re- 
corded that the usual method of .collecting it 
was to throw a Jiog across one of the oil 
streams, and to stop the surface oil by laying 
blankets upon this log. When it had accumu- 
lated sufficiently, they wrung the cloths over 
vessels provided to hold the liquid. More 
than a hundred years ago, at the time of the 
French and Indian war, the commandant of 
Fort Duquesne — which stood precisely where 
Pittsburg now stands — wrote a letter to Gene- 
ral Montcalm, in Canada, giving a very inte- 
resting account of a great Indian assembly 
in the night on the banks of Oil Creek. In 
the midst of their ceremonies, the oil that had 
collected on the water was fired, and simulta- 
neously they shouted and danced about* the 

Although the white settlers learned all about 


tbe oil springs from the Indians, they gathered, 
perhaps, not more than twenty barrels annu- 
ally, jmd this was solely consumed for medi- 
cinal purposes. The idea never seems to have 
struck them that, by deeper excavation, the 
supply might be much increased, nor that its 
quality and usefulness could be much enhanced 
by distillation. 

Oil was first obtained by boring in 1819. In 
sinking wells for salt on the Little Muskingum 
Eiver, in Ohio, one or two wells sunk dis- 
charged vast quantities of petroleum and gas 
in an explosive manner. Although Dr. Hil- 
dreth states that it was in some demand for 
lamps in workshops and manufactories, and 
that he predicted that it would be a valuable 
article for lighting the streets of the future 
cities of Ohio, yet for over thirty years it was 
not used in this way. 

In 1845, in boring for salt water upon the 
Alleghany Mountains, near Pittsburg, a petro- 
leum spring was struck, but its products were 
bottled and sold in drug shops at a high price. 

In 1854 one of the springs on Oil Creek 



was purcbased on speculatioD, and tho oil 
examined and reported upon, but notbing 
farther seems to have been done until 1858, 
wben two New HavAi gentlemen resolved to 
continue tbe search for oil wells. One of 
them, Colonel Drake, removed to Titusville, 
Crawford County, and began his arrangements 
for boring into the rock below the bed of the 
creek, and in August, 1858, the oil stratum was 
reached, at the depth of seventy feet. A pump 
was introduced, which raised at first four 
hundred gallons, and afterward one thousand 
gallons daily. Business immediately assumed 
a new aspect in Venango County and there- 
abouts. The wildest fever of speculation soon 
ensued. Lands rose enormously in price. 
The length of time considered ixecessary for 
the making of a fortune was that requisite 
for^the sinking of a shaft. The land on either 
side of French Creek, Oil Creek, and part of 
Alleghany River was perforated with wells, 
and the derricks for working the drills stood 
up in the yards and gardens of the villages a^ 
thick as masj;s in a harbor. The wells varied 


in depth from sixty to six hundred feet. The 
Empire Spring was of the latter depth, with a 
hose leading from it to a reservoir three hun- 
dred feet higher; yet tb% pressure of the gas 
which issued with the oil forced it up the 
whole nine hundred feet. The celebrated 
Phillips Well yielded three thousand barrels 
per day. When a well was apparently ex- 
hausted, the supply could often be renewed 
by drilling a little deeper. 

In Ohio, not far from the Pennsylvania bor- 
der, the people had noticed a strong taste of 
oil in the water of the vicinity, and this, after 
the success of the wells in Venango County, 
induced them to make a similar attempt. 
Petroleum was reached at the depth of sixty 
feet; and within six months^ after this there 
had been seven hundred wells sunk. Bitchie 
and Wirt Counties, Virginia, have also been 
found to produce good oil. The first attempt 
in New York was made about a year and a 
half ago, in Alleghany County, near a famous 
pool, which had always been known as " the. 
oil spring." Even before the iron pipes could 


be driven down to the rock, the oil, mingled 
with water, rushed up like a fountain. The 
jets of gas which accompany the petroleum 
are often very profuse and long continued. 
In Chautauqua County, N. Y., they have been 
secured and made use of to light the town of 
Fredonia, and the light-house in Portland Har- 
bor, on Lake Erie. 

Previously to this time, in consequence of 
the usefulness of the oily products of coal 
introduced by Mr. Young, in Glasgow, some 
gentlemen in Canada — foremost among whom 
was Mr. Williams, of Hamilton — formed 
themselves into a company, and acquired the 
lands in Enniskillen, on which superficial de- 
posits of a tarry bitumen occur. Their inten- 
tion was to use this substance as a substitute 
for coal in the manufacture of such oils, it 
having been ascertained to contain 80 per 
cent, of volatile matters. It was soon dis- 
covered that, on penetrating through the bitu- 
men into the clay beneath, the material could 
be obtained in large quantities in the fluid 
state. In 1857 Mr. Williams bored into the 
earth on the shore of Lake Huron, in Canada 


West, and pierced a reservoir of oil. His 
saccess at once induced the sinking of wells in 

The Canada oil district has surpassed all 
others in the immense amount it has produced, 
allowance being made for the fact that the num- 
ber of wells is comparatively small. In 1862 
the three hundred Enniskillen Wells, on Black 
Creek, produced, within an area of two square 
miles, at a minimum, four hi>ndred gallons 
each per day. One of the wells spouted, for 
many days afber it was finished, from four to 
five hundred thousand gallons daily. Another 
was only second to it in yield, and, with five 
or six others of remarkable richness, did con- 
tinue for several months to pour forth this 
flood of oil, much of which was wasted for 
want of proper reservoirs, or an adequate sup- 
ply of barrels. 

Petroleum coming from different, localities 
often differs in consistency from the fluidity of 
naphtha to the viscidity of tar. In color, speci- 
mens vary from extreme yellow to deep black, 
and some have a greenish or reddish hue. 


The Canadian oils contain more parafi&ne in so- 
lution, and have a greater specific gravity (0.9) 
than American samples, which, while rich in 

light oik as a rule, have only the specific gravity 

The heavier hydrocarbon oils are non-ex- 
ploaive and safe, while the use of the lighter 
and more volati]e ones, such as naphtha, some- 
times sold uoder various fictitious names, as 
** liquid gas/^ ** vesper gas,'* &c., are as dangerous 
as the older burning fluids, manufactured from 
strong alcohol and oil of turpentine, and which 
invariably exploded when their volatile vapors, 
mingled with atmoapheric air, came in contact 
with a light. They have coat hundreds of lives 
in our country. 

The native coal oils of Pennsylvania and 
Canada belong to the first class — i. e., do not 
explode in lamps and cans. This has been 
determined by actual esperimeot. 

Of the samples of American petrolenm, tested 
by the Manchester Sanitary Commission, two 
formed an explosive vapor with air at 60 deg. 
F.; four at 100 deg. F.; three at 120 deg, R, 



and twenty at 150 deg. F. Nine specimens out 

of thirty -two were pronounced very dangerous. 

The British government has legislated on the 

subject, virtually forbidding the sale of those 

oils which take fire and explode at or below 

100 deg. F. The proportion of these light oils 

in petroleum may vary from thirty to ninety 

per cent. 

Fig. 1. 



Several apparatus have been patented for 
tbe purpose of determining the temperature at 
which different kinds of petroleum are likely 
to explode. 

Parrish* recommends the following con- 
struction of which we give a drawing, Fig. 1. 

A thermometer F, inclosed in a capsule, 
passes through a cover D into the oil to be ex- 
amined. A tube with wick surrounded by a 
chimney S and a screen E are placed opposite 
the thermometer. The vessel is charged first 
with water upon which the oil is poured next 
and the apparatus heated in a water-bath and 
the wick lighted. 

Through the opening L an air current with 
an admixture of oil vapor is formed, which 
shortly takes fire with a slight explosion, put- 
ting out the flame. The temperature at which 
this happens is observed. 

Wells often take fire by accident, and the 
injury consequent, both to property and hu- 

* Proceedings of the Amer. Pharm. Association at the 
tenth annual meeting held in Philadelphia, 1862. 

101 COAL OIL And petboleum. 

man life, is the most serious. Says one writer : 
" In the autumn of 1861, a well about three 
miles up Oil Creek was lighted by a cigar 
while thirty or forty people were standing about 
it, of whom fifteen were killed instantly by the 
explosion, and thirteen seriously injured. A 
column of fire with its head rising and falling 
from thirty to fifty feet continued to burn. 
The Little and Merrick well exploded on April 
17th of the same year, just after it had been 
deepened, and before the boring was finished. 
A most terrible scene ensued ; the atmosphere 
was filled with the sickening gas or fiames, and 
the ground for a long distance was a sea of fire. 
Four wells lost everything, including 500 bar- 
rels of oil, and much other property. Only six 
persons lost their lives, although a large crowd 
stood near at the time of the explosion. All 
night this magnificent spectacle was continued. 
A steady rush of pure oil, nearly one hundred 
feet in height, and never ceasing its flow, 
burned with the noise like the roar of a heavy 
surf; sending volumes of black smoke up over 
the tops of the surrounding hills." On another 


occasion no less than seven flowing and three 
pumping wells, with thirty thousand barrels of 
oil, and the surrounding woods, were in flames 
at once. The blazing surface of Oil Creek 
added to the grandeur of the sight. 

In some instances the gas has become ignited 
and burned for weeks, the mouth of the well 
being converted into a mighty gas burner, 
from which a flame has risen many feet in 
height. Only a few months ago, a gentleman by 
the name of Jacob Crowe was sinking a well 
on George's Creek, Fayette County, Pa., and 
when the drill struck the oil deposit, a powerful 
volume of carbo-hydrogen gases ascended to 
the surface, filled the atmosphere, and coming in 
contact with a stove in a shanty some distance 
from the well, a terrific explosion ensued, and 
flames darted into the air sixty feet high ! For- 
tunately no one was injured, and the flames 
were finally subdued; but the experienced 
borers never permit fire aiiywhere near the 
well upon which they are working. 

On Oil Creek most of the oil is found in the 
same stratum of sandstone; but in Canada it is 


often lodged in a magnesian limestone, judging 
from a specimen which we have examined. 

John Steele, of Oil Creek valley, is said to 
derive an annual income of $750,000 firom 
wells on his premises. A correspondent of the 
New York Herald states that he was ferried 
across the creek by an "oil prince," aged fif- 
teen, heir to a million, coatless, hatless, and 
with but one suspender. 

Some idea of the magnitude which the oil 
business has reached, may be obtained from the 
fact that a strip of land two mile» broad and 
twenty in length, on both sides of Oil Creek is 
estimated to-day at two hundred and fifty mil- 
lions of dollars, worth four years ago but four 
dollars an acre. It will be borne in mind that 
this is but a very small portion of the oil region 
of Pennsylvania alone. 

The manufacture of barrels is also a good 
illustration of the same truth. In many parts 
of the State, whole communities of barrel- 
makers have sprung up, as in Birmah large 
villages of potters supply the earthen vessels 
there used for the same purpose. A serious 


loss was at first experienced from leakage. In 
a single journey to New York, a barrel of oil 
lost one-tenth, and this in spite of every pre- 
caution. The lighter oils of petroleum per- 
sistently penetrate the pores of every wood, so 
that in a voyage to Europe barrels often became 
entirely empty. Many inventions sought to 
remedy the difficulty, the most valuable of 
which is the following: a mixture of glue, gly- 
cerine, and molasses being melted, is applied to 
the inner surface of the barrel, and is then 
washed with' a solution of tannin. By this pro- 
cess a leather-like compound is formed, which 
securely confines the most penetrating oils- 
The same compound, with the exception of the 
glycerine, is used in the formation of printers' 

Another process of lining barrels consists in 
the employment of soluble glass or silicate of 
potash, either alone or in union with other 

A recent number of the "American Druggists' 
Circular" contains the following statements : — 


Petroleum in Pennsylvania. — The Petroleam 
produced in the State of Pennsylvania was sold 
at the wells for $56,000,000 during the last 
twelve months, while the iron and coal of 
Pennsylvania only produced $50,000,000. In 
Philadelphia the daily sales of petroleum stocks 
at the regular stock exchange board are over 
$200,000. The number of petroleum compa- 
nies organized is about one hundred and fifty, 
and in New York about eighty. 

Petroleum in Pittsburg. — The whole number 
of petroleum refiners in Pittsburg is fifty-eight, 
with a total capacity per week of 26,000 barrels. 
The value of real estate, buildings, and ma- 
chinery is $2,534,000, and the value of 'bils 
refined, 88,599,223, and the wages paid per 
annum amount to $350,000. 




Petroleum occurs in rocks of very different 
geolo^cal ages, from the lower Silurian up to 
the Tertiary period, inclusive. In Europe and 
Asia these deposits are mostly confined to the 
more recent secondary and 4^rtiary formations, 
whilst in the United States the oil wells are 
mostly sunk in the sandstones which form the 
summit of the Devonian strata. Those of 
Enniskillen, near Lake St. Qlair, in Canada, are 
situated much lower in the carniferous lime- 
stone. Petroleum is seen to impregnate mostly 
limestones, sandstones, and shales. The rule 
amongst miners is, that the harder the rock 
may be to drill, the lighter in color, purer in 
quality, and smaller in quantity, is usually th 


oil obtained therefrom, aod Che softer ihe rock, 
the darker and more abundant the oil. 

Wells are sunk either by persons owning 
the property or by companies. Some of the 
original owners of the land will not sell, and 
sink wells on their own account, generally 
realizing an ample fortune in a short time. In 
other cases wells are.sunk by companies, under 
the direction of a superintendent, and the ex- 
penses paid from a sum set apart as a working 
capital. Before a well is sunk, a spot is chosen 
on which to commence work. This location 
is determined by the dip of rock, course of 
stream, burst of an upheaval, concentration of 
ravines, and other marks governing oil men, 
the failures and successes of others being of 
great benefit in making selections of spots for 
wells. The oil springs in Ohio, originate gene- 
rally near the anticlinal lined, as seen in the 
accompanying diagrams, Figs. 2, 8, 4, 5, 
sketched by Prof. E. B. Andrews.* A derrick, 
resembling^the frame of an old-fashioned church 
ateeple, is erected over the spot chosen. This 

« Am. Jaorn. Sei. aad Arts, 1861. Vol. XXXII. pp. 85-93. 


derrick is about forty feet bigh, ten feet square 
at tbe base, tapering to four or five feet at the 
top, where a pulley block is affixed, through 
which runs a rope to work the drill and hand 
up the boring tools, sand-pump (a tube or 
pump which is used to clean out the chips 
from the hole made, by the drill), tubes, rods, 
etc., used in sinking or working the well. A 
long box, about eight inches square, is then 
put down till the lower end rests on the bed 
rock, be it one or fifty feet. This box is 
called a conductor, and its use is to steady the 
drill which work^ up and down inside of it. 
The cost of erecting a derrick is from sixty 
dollars to eighty-five dollars, according to its 
height or plainness, ^nd the work is done by 
almost any man« acquainted with the use of 
carpenter's tools. The conductor costs from 
$15 to $80, according to the depth at which 
the bed rock is reached. The drill is a heavy 
iron chisel with rounded and sharpened end. 
It is about three feet long, and weighs from 
seventy to one hundred pounds. It is worked 
up and dowp by means of .a rod or rope 
















attached to the upper end. This chisel is , 
followed* by a reamer, made like the drill, 
except the end is square. It breaks down the 
little irregular juttings of rock left by the 
drill. The reamer is followed by the sand 
pump, which cleans out the debris. To work 
the drill and other tools necessary to sink a 
well, spring poles, resembling im old-fashioned 
well sweep, are sometimes - used. Spring 
poles are cheaper than engines at drst, but 
not so good. The relative cost of boring is 
as follows : With spring poles, $3 to $4 per 
foot. Engine, ^^2 50 ixx^S 75 per foot. This 
is the price paid to men who take the contract 
t& sink the well, the employer finding all the 
tools, and if the work be done by an engine, 
the fuel and oil to work the same. This price 
" includes the cleaning out of the well and putting 
in the tubing, but not the cost thereof, which 
is about sixty cents a foot. The range of price 
is governed by the depth of the well. The 
usual expense is from five to six thousand 
A well can be put down one hundred and 


fifty feet quicker and cheaper, with Spring- 
pole than with steam power. The*readOn ia 
that, starting at the same time, the spring- 
pole can be erected, and the drill- be ^own 
thirty or forty feet, before the engine can be 
set, housed, and made ready to run. But, 
once in operation, steam power drives ahead, 
passing the spring-pole drill at about one 
hundred and fifty feet below the surface. 
- . For developing a bow oil region, for in- 
stance, ther sectiofT about iFishkiU, Hxe^r the 
Hudson Eiver, ' where therfe ari numerous 
unmistakable indications of petroleum, wells 
could be put down at less expense, and to 
better advantage, by spring- poles than with 
engines. The same rule will apply with equal 
force where there is a "show," but not, as in 
Wtstern Virginia, that absolute certainty of 
great oil wealth, which but awaits the drill 
and pump to yield steady streams of petroleum 
to reward and enrich the operator. 

A twelve-horse power engine costs, delivered 
on the ground ready for work here, about two 
thousand four hundred dollars ; a set of tools 


complete, three hupdred and seventy-five 
dollars. From the above figures men will see 
how much it will cost to sink a well. Tanks 
cost about two hundred dollars, but this 
expense need not be incurred till the oil is 
reached. The building over the engine to 
protect it from rain and storms costs about 
three hundred dollars. The barrels are fur* 
nished by the refiner, who takes the oil from 
the tank, pays his own cost of transportation, 
barrelling, etc., and keeps you supplied with 
empty barrels. This saves the question of 
transportation to parties owning or operating 

Bope tools are now used by all, except old 
fogies. They are less liable to accident, and 
are more convenient to draw the drill, reamer, 
and sand-pump, than the stiff continuous p^le 

The primitive style of seed-bag, an old 
boot-leg, filled with flaxseed, which expands 
when wet, is still used. A better invention is 
demanded— one that-will not provokingly give 
way just at the wrong time, to the delay of the 


works, and serious loss to the owners. These 
seed-bags, I remark for the benefit of those 

i^rho maj not know the meaning of the term, 
are contrivances let down the hole, t)utside 
the tubej for the purpose of keeping back the 
air of water, or stopping some little crack in 
the rock through which the drill passed, A 
boot'leg, ^lled with fiaxaeed, was found to 
answer the purpose, hence the namep Oil men 
will hail with delight a new invention which 
will be certain to do the work, and be leas 
bungling and more easy to manage. 

Oil 'tools can be best and cheapest procured 
in Pittsburgj New York, Philadelphiaj or some 
other place where they are to be had on order. 
Parties about developing oil-lands cannot be too 
particular in the selection of good machinery. 
Poor weak machinery is a nuisance, and its 
cheapness a curse, especially when the means 
for repairing are not close at hand. 

We are often asked how ^t a man can bore, 
or how many feet a well is sunk in a day. The 
answer depends on circumstances, according to 
the nature of the rock. Some days the drill 










will make fifteen or twenty feet; again, it will 
pound all day and not penetrate more than 
twenty inches. The average is about eight 
feet a day; The best plan is to work two gangs 
of men, from twelve to twelve, and without 
stopping drive down as fast as possible till the 
oil is reached. Very much of the success or 
failure of a company depends upon the skill, 
capability, genius, and business tact of the 
superintendent. One man works to kill time, 
looking more for sunset than for oil, indifierent 
as to all things save drawing his wages. An- 
other man attends to business, is quick, prompt, 
energetic, and interested in the welfare of his 
employers. One good superintendent is worth 
twenty poor ones, and ^n take charge of a 
score or more of wells, simply requiring brains 
to plan and a mind to direct the labor of others. 
Companies cannot be too careful in this respect, 
as daily observation has abundantly proven. 

A new process of boring is on trial at the 
Gillette Company's wells, on the McElhiney 
tract, Pennsylvania, under the management of 
Mr. J. T. Briggs. The process is of French in- 


Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. 

Temper«screw. Drill-stem. Drill. Beamer. Boood reamer^ 


Fig- 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

Pipe-tongs. Jarr. Sand'pamp. 



yentioD, and tbe patentee personally saperin- 
tends its working. This is the first time it has 
ever been tested, and the progress of the expe- 
riment is watched with great interest by well 
owners. The principle is that of cutting out a 
hole instead of pounding it. The drill is cir- 
cular and hollow, being a thin tube, set at its 
lower edge with Brazilian diamonds, of hard- 
ness sufficient to cut glass. It is connected by 
an iron rod to bevelled cog-wheels attached by 
cranks and rods to the walking beam of the 
engine. The surface of the upper rock being • 
cleared, the drill sits on it and revolves with 
great rapidity, cutting its way down at a rate 
astonishing to old well borers, and leaving a 
centitil core standing. A clamp is let down 
which grips the core and jerks it up in the form 
of a perfectly smooth cylinder. Water is poured 
down the hole to assist the cutting process, until 
the natural flow from the springs cut supplies 
the want. The portions of the core shown ex- 
hibited the stratification of the rock, and will 
go £eu: to settle some vexed questions about the 


strata which cannot be ascertained by the ordi- 
nary method of drilling. 

Five feet of rock had been cut at the rate of 
four inches in five minutes, or ninety-six feet 
per day, when some changes were required in 
the machine, and it was removed for alteration. 
The patentee is satisfied that he can put down 
a well of five hundred feet deep in ten days, at 
no greater cost to the well owner than by the 
present tedious process, which takes from two 
to four months.. 

An oil well was being bored near Detroit, 
Michigan, and when the drill had reached a 
depth of seventy feet a current of gas escaped 
which blew out the drill and tools, weighing 
eight hundred pounds; blew off the shed, roof 
of the derrick, forty-five feet high ; and hurled 
forth a stream of water, gravel, and large stones. 
The workmen narrowly escaped with their lives. 
The water was strongly impregnated with pe- 




Petroleum is doubtless a product of chemi- 
oal deoomposition, derived from organic re- 
mains, plants, and animals, whole generations of 
whicfi perished and accumulated during many 
destructive revolutions at the various ages or 
epochs of our* planet As to the manner in 
which these oilj hydrocarbons were originally 
produced, scientific men are still divided in 
opinion. Some believe that they resulted, like 
the artificial oils we have dwelt upon, from a 
dry distillation^ — ^.e., the effects upon vegetable 
tissue of heat, such as hot gases, or steam gene* 
i*ated by volcanic action, untold ages, before^ 
our solid earth had acquired its present thick- 
ness and stability of surface. Many other 
theories have gained some grouhd, though 


mostly with the vulgar, as scarcely any of them 
are more coherent and rational than the old 
oil-king's extrayaga.nt supposition of a buried 
shoal of whales* 

That petroleum is of vegetable, or rather or- 
ganic origin, is too manifest from its compo- 
sition to require argument. There are, per- 
haps, but two opinions in regard to the man- 
ner of its production which deserve notice at 
our hands. The first is that the oil was derived 
during the first bituminization, or conversion 
of woody fibre into coal. The other maintains 
that, by a process of distillation, coal beds, or 
bituminous rocks, such as schists and slates, 
have yielded up their oily matter, which they 
derived from plants and animals. Even under 
the first hypothesis it might have been pro- 
duced in two ways ; for we may heat or char a 
vegetable substance like wood rapidly, with the 
total exclusion of air, and without the possi- 
bility of escape for the gaseous and liquid pro- 
ducts, or we may suffer it to undergo a sponta- 
neous decomposition under the same conditions 
of absolute confinement, and under so great a 


pressure that at the commencement of the pro- 
cess the products evolved might be retained. 
In both cases the same result would be attained, 
t. 0., the formation of stone -coal| oils, and 
gases, although in the latter case sufficient 
time — perhaps thousands of years — ^must . be 
granted. Experiments of the former kind, 
t. e^ charring of wood in hermetically sesded 
heavy cast-iron vessels, were actually executed; 
not so much to explain the origin of coal oils, 
then (1841) scarcely noticed, as to establish the 
experimental proof of th^ formation of stone coal 
from vegetable matter. Contrary to the usual 
suppositpn of fi microscopic cellular structure, 
cannel and similar varieties of coal show, by* 
their conchoidal fracture and total want of an 
organized or cellular constitution, that they 
must have been in a softened or even liquid 
condition. Dr. A. Petzholdt* succeeded in . 
preparing three varieties, of coal in this way, 
viz: coke, charcoal, and cannel coal. The 

* Dr. Alexander Petzholdt. Ueber Calamiten und Stein- 
kohlenbildung. Dresden and Leipzig, 1841, pp. 17-28. 


latter result was obtained when the products 
of distillation were entirely retained, or could 
only have escaped, through the pores of the 
cailt-iron boxes. In this case the space occu- 
pied by the coal was f»ne-half that of the wood ; 
the resulting product was dense, burned readily 
in a candle flame, and was^destitute of vegeta- 
ble structure ; from which he concludes that a 
decomposition of vegetable matter is possible 
in which the carbon is dissolved in the gaseous 
and liquid products formed at| the same time* 
Monsieur Barouler, by placing vegetable mate- 
rial in an apparatus made of wet clay, and 
capable of being strongly compressed, ^nd ex- 
posed for a long-continued time to a tempera- 
ture ranging from 392 deg. to 572 deg. F., 
produced ordinary coal. 

Against this theory of oil formation by the 
original bituminization of vegetable matter, it 
has been objected that the presence of bitumi- 
nous coal beds, made of land or fresh water 
plants, should be accompanied by correspond- 
ing quantities of oil. Such is not found to be 
the case, since the oil, instead of beiug found 


in contact with coal deposits, occapies nsuallj 
cavities of overlying rocks, perhaps produced 
long after the coal; and further, it* is often m^t 
with miles awaj from any coal field. It has also 
been held that upon such a«upposition it would 
be difficult to account for the large volumes of 
inflammable gases which exist with the oil. 

In answer to these objections, it may be urged 
that the immense pressure to which all these 
substances were subjected would naturally ope- 
rate to compel the condensed volatile products 
to seek as high a level as they could reach, and 
the consequence would be, that, having pene- 
trated the shaly formations, already, perhaps, 
charged with the heavier hydrocarbons, they 
would at last find a resting place as petroleum, 
and remain pent up until the drill of the oil 
speculator gave them vent. By the same cause 
the oil might have been forced miles away, from 
the place of its original distillation ; although 
it is safe to affirm that in most localities of the 
United States where petroleum is found, the 
deposit has some geographical connection, at 
least with coal-bed regions, whether these be- 


long to the oldest coal formations, as those of 
the Devonian and carboniferous systems, or to 
the much moi*e recent oolitic and tertiary age. 
It is said that tertiary coal beds underlie ihot 
Rangoon oil wells. Tertiary lignites abound in 
Trinidad, Lombardy^.and Middle Asia. As an 
exemplification of the pressure to which thia 
putrescent flora was submitted, we may instance 
the fact that in the most recent deposits of lig- 
nites, stems of trees, upon which one hundred . 
annular rings could yet be counted, were so 
flattened that one diameter exceeded the other 
four to eight times; 

It is well known that, in the common peat 
bogs of the present day, the cryptogamous 
plants composing them give oS at their firsts 
stages of decay considerable quantities of at 
combustible hydrocarbon known as marsh gas, 
together with nitrogen, some carbonic acid, and^ 
water.* Now the ancient coal measures origi- 
nated from a terrestrial flora, in stagnant waters, 

* BeitrUge zar Erkenntniss der Eusammensetzang and 
Bildung dea Forfes, von Dr. Jastus Webskj, in Joum. f. 
Prakt. Chemie, Bd. 92, 1864. Heft 2, p. 65. 


wbere vast bogs of gigaQtio crjptogamoas 
plants — as tree-like ferns, club mosses, horse- 
tails (calamites), &o. — were buried, and after- 
wards converted by ages of time, tremendous 
pressure, and tbe agency of beat (at least in the 
c^e of anthracite), into coaL It is not possi- 
ble to conceive that these processes could have 
gone on without the liberation of gaseous as 
well as liquid products in large quantities. 
Chemists have separated from petroleum as 
many as twelve volatile fluid hydrocarbons, 
homologous with marsh gas (C^H^,), i. e., form- 
ing, as it were, a progressive series of that first 
and lowest member. The rate of increase 
bein^ 0,H^ as C,H^,C^H^,C«Hg, &c., &c. An ad- 
mixture of olefiant gas (O^H^,) as it is usually 
met with in gas springs, could be easily«^ ac- 
counted for, since we know that an elevated 
temperature acting upon vegetable matter will 
produce it. Many of the heavier hydrocarbon 
oils entering into the composition of petroleum 
are homologues of the hydrocarbon C^H^, the 
last and highest member of which is probably 
paraffine, C^ + n H^ + n. 


It might be objected to the formation of these 
gases that there was no room for them to ex- 
pand under such a pressure, and that conse- 
quently they could not originate. But we know 
from recent experiments of Deville, Troost, and 
Cailletet, that combustible gases at a high tem- 
perature will even penetrate heavy iron tubes, 
such as gun barrels ; how much less resistance 
would certain rocks offer? 

An important item in accounting for the 
source of heat is the established fact that min- 
erals, salts, &c., in the act of crystallization set 
free a great deal of latent heat. The amount 
is at times so great that lava nearly cold has 
been seen to become again glowing. It is also 
interesting to know that miueral masses may 
dissolve large quantities of gases before becom- 
ing solid; thus Cailletet and Pilla observed that 
cold lava, after the eruption of Vesuvius in 
1861, evolved marsh gas and hydrogen. From 
this it likewise follows that the atmosphere of 
the crater inclosing the melted lava consisted 
in a considerable degree of these gases, and 
that they were taken up in the same manner 


as oxygen is absorbed by melted silyer, again 
to be set £ree as soon as crystallization b^ns. 
The annexed table"*" abows how, in the pro^ 
cess of bituminization, the proportion of oxy- 
gen decreases as we proceed towards cidet 
carboniferous formations. It has been pre- 
pared from a large number of analyses, and 
will give at a glance the comparative com- 
position of all these varieties of carbonaceous 
deposits, from wood down to anthracite coal. 
The carbon is represented by 100 in all cases, 
so as to enable us to compare the succes-^ 
sive changes in composition which take place 
from wood to coal. The small amount of ni- 
trogen and of ashes are left out in the state* 

ment: — 


♦ From a Coarse of Lectures by Dr. Percy, at the Lon- 
don School of Mines. 


Carb. Hjdrog. Okygen. 

Woody tissue 




Feat .... 








South Staffordshire coal- 




Steam coal from the Tyne IQO 



Semi-anthracite coal 

from South "Wales . 




Anthracite from Pa. . 100 2.84 1.74 

Finally the chemical qualities of petroleum 
prove that it must have been produced by a 
process analogous in result to the dry distilla- 
tion of peat. The native oils of the United 
States differ considerably from the artificially 
prepared from bituminous coal, for they yield 
with nitric acid little or no artificial oil of Wtter 
almonds (nitro-benzole), or the precious aniline 
dyes mentioned in connection with coal oil 
They are composed mainly of volatile hydro- 
carbon oils obtainable at low temperatures from 
turf. Pelouze and Oahours remark that the total 
absence of benzine or any of its homologues 
in American petroleum, would seem to indicate 


that this oil could not be derived from coal 
unless this latter had undergone a decomposi- 
tion very different to that which takes place 
when it is submitted to distillation.* 

The other theory which regards petroleum as 
derived from bituminous shale or coal by a pro- 
cess of distillation has also its objections ; the 
chief of which is, that such coals in our oil 
regions furnish no evidence of having lost any 
of* their normal quantity of bitumen. At 
Petroleum, Kitchie County, Virginia, where 
strata have been brought up 'by an uplift from 
several hundred feet below, seams of cannel 
and bituminous coal appear, which, when ana- 
lyzed and compared with Nova Scotianor Eng- 
lish coals, have lost no bitumen — afigict all the 
more surprising when it is remembered that 
freshly-mined coal undergoes even at a tem- 
perature little above that of the atmosphere, 
but under increased pressure, the first step of 
bituminization, ^. €., disengages marsh gas or the 

* This sweeping conclusion seems inadmissible^ con- 
sidering Schorlemmer's analysis of cannel coal oils. — 
Journ, Chem, Society, xv. p. 419. 



so-called fire-damp so dangerous to miners. As 
the temperature increases, liquid hydrocarbons 
begin to appear. 

We have indeed good reasons for believing 
that the bitumen associated with schists and 
shales is rather the result than the cause of 
petroleum, i. c, that bitumen consists of har- 
dened drops of the latter. 

Prof. H. D. Eogers' observations are im- 
portant in this connection. 

He states that the amount of volatile sub- 
stances in the Appalachian coal fields decreases 
in passing from west"'to*east; and thatj at the 
western limit, where the strata are still hori- 
zontal, {he proportion of volatile matter may 
reach forty to fifty per cent. On the eastern 
side, where the strata have been actually turned 
over, the coal contains only from six to twelve 
per cent. Sir Charles Lyell, commenting on 
these observations, remarks : " There is an in- 
timate connection between the extent to which 
the coal has parted with its gaseous contents 
and» the amount of disturbance which the 
strata have undergone. The coincidence of 


these phenomena may be attributed partly to 
the greater facility aflfbrded for the escape of 
volatile matter, when the fracturing of the 
rocks had produced an infinite number of 
cracks and crevices, and also to th*e heat of the 
gases and waters penetrating these cracks, when 
the great movements took place which rent and 
folded the Appalachian strata." According to 
the theory under consideration, we should ex- 
pect to find oil in immense quantities wherever 
coal measures have parted with their bitumen ; 
whereas, exactly the reverse is proved to be 
the case — it being borne in mind that deposits 
of oil are found only in the western portion of 
the coal fields, and that, in the eastern, where 
the coal is almost entirely anthracite, none 
have been discoyered. 

There being, probably, no organic deposit, 
either entirely animal or vegetable in its nature, 
but all more likely being composed of both, it 
is safe to conclude that bituminous oils are of 
a mixed origin in this respect .In Canada, 
l^ew York, and perhaps in Kentucky, where 
oil is found in the Devonian rocks below the 


old red sandstone, it has been suspected to be 
mostly of animal origin, because these strata 
were formed long before the oldest coal mea- 
sure, and exhibit no remains of a land flora. 
In cavities formed in the rock by some fossil 
animals, as the huge chambered shelled ortho- 
ceratites, some of which .were many feet in 
length, considerable quantities of petroleum 
have been found, but so fetid as to be offensive. 
Most rocks have been formed by marine depo- 
sitions of earthy matter, inclosing, in great pro- 
fusion, the remains of those extinct animals 
which peopled the ancient oceans. Theser fossil 
shells are distributed everywhere, from the 
dawn of paleozoic life up through each suc- 
ceeding age. The same is relatively true in 
regard to plants, even if that marine and scanty 
flora should not have been preserved, or failed 
to leave traces of its existence behind. It is 
a law of nature that vegetable life precedes that 
of animals; or, differently expressed, all ani- 
mals are slavishly bound upon the existence 
of plants, siribe all derive their food directly or 
indirectly from them. 



The reign of plants in fhe carboniferous era 
commenced when land and water no longer 
struggled for predominance, for they are essen- 
tially terrestrial or fresh-water formations, 
presenting the appearance of huge swamps, 
composed, with few exceptions, of plants which 
might flourish either in or out of stagnant 
water.* The period must have been one of 
long, uninterrupted, and quiet growth; the 
climate a warm and uniformly tropical one, 
and the atmosphere probably highly charged 
with water and carbonic acid — conditions very 
favorable for the rich development of plants, 
though unsuitable for the respiration of higher 
animals. Indel^d, at the present time, in the 
damp and warm climate of the South Sea 
Islands, ferns and equisetaceous -plants assume 
a- tree-like habitus. Th^ decay of, this very 
extensive cryptogamic flora, extending far up 
to the north, must have been slow, and have 
taken place generally under water. The oxy- 

* Lesqnerenx, Am. Jour. Soi.,> toI. 32, 1861 ; and 
Oswald Heer's Urwelt der Sohweiz, Zarich, 1864. 


gen being thereby excluded, the carbon would 
be preserved. 

In Southern Ohio and Western Virginia the 
petroleum is apparently found in the coal mea- 
sures themselves ; but the wells have often to 
b6 sunk through them into the sandstone and 
slates below before they become productive. 

From the black shales, which immediately 
overlie the corniferous or Devonian lime- 
stone, the oil springs of Canada We3t issue ; 
and from this fact the origin of the petroleum 
of these regions is held by the best geologists 
of the Province to be principally animal. 

Prof. J. P. Lesley writes :* " The connection 
of the oil regions with the coal basins. of West- 
ern Pennsylvania and Virginia, Eastern Ohio 
and Kentucky, is, in good measure, a geogra- 
phical deception. Tl^e Oil Creek rocks, dipping 
southward, pass 500 or 600 feet below the coal 
measures. The nearest coal bed to the more 
northern springs occurs on the highest hill- 
tops, many miles away. The hills in the vici- 
nity of some of the wells are capped by the 

* Article on coal oil in Agricultural Refiortjl8Q2f p. 443. 


conglomerate base of the coal measures at least 
a hundred feet thick. The shales and sand- 
stones of the valley belong to formations X, 
IX, and VIII, desQcnding, called by the New- 
York geologist the Catskill, Chemung, and 
Portage groups, extending over all the south- 
ern counties of Western New York. The 
southern dip carries down these oil-bearing 
rocks, and the wells must deepen in the same 
direction. Mr. Eidgeway reports (July 10, 
1862) the lowest oil-bearing sand rock, cap- 
ping the hills near Waterford, on Le BoeuflF 
Creek, and the same sandstones appear on Big 
French Creek, full of plant remains. 

"The following wells show the dip in a 
well- marked manner: The Phillipps Well, on 
Oil Creek, is 460 feet; the Brawley Well, at 
the mouth of Cherry Eun, 503 feet; the Corn- 
wall Well, 530 feet; the Avery Well, over 700 
feet ; and at Titusville he estimates the proper 
depth at 1,000 or 1,200 feet. 
• " In the Mahoning Coal Oil region in West- 
ern Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio, near the 
line, the three oil-bearing sand-rock strata are 
beneath the lowest coal bed." 


Sir William Logan* has pointed out that 
a line drawn through London, Burlington 
. Bay, Zone, and Chatham, marks the summit 
of a flat, anticlinal arch (resembling' a house 
roof), upon which the principal oil fields are 
situated. The same strata in which it is found 
dip away until in Michigan, on one side, they 
are proved to be pne^thousand feet below the 
surface, and in Pennsylvania, on the other, they 
underlie the great coal-measures. It will thus 
be seen that the surface rocks of the oil region 
in Canada are the same upon which the great 
layers of the true carboniferous or plant-pro- 
ducing era are based in other localities. In 
Canadian rocks of the Silurian'and Devonian 
jges, bituminous beds, and evolutions of gase- 
ous and liquid hydrocarbons occur throughout 
the whole system; and in the Hudson Eiver 
group of rocks, in which there are but slight 
traces of vegetable life, these oils have been 
obtained. The upper beds of carboniferous 
limestone, and the entire mass of Hamilton 
shales are charged to excess with organic (and 

* Canadian Joum. New series. Vol. vi., 1861, p. 319. 


mostly animal) remains. It is believed that 
at the time when the region in question was 
covered to a great extent by the waters of the 
ocean, a few species of aquatic plants, with 
various animals of a low order, such as cri- 
npids, which grew on a stem like a vegetable; 
brachiopods, which were a kind of shell-fish ; 
and trilobites, a large prustacean, ^nd many 
others, flourished in wonderful profusion. As 
the floor of the sea gradually sunk with the . 
cooling of the earth-crust, successive genera- 
tions of these must have been buried in the 
waters, and covered by mineral and earthy 
deposits. Under such circumstances a slow, 
dry distillation might gradually take place, the 
products of which are preserved for the use of 
man in the innumerable fissures of the rocks. 
The organic matter, scattered in such abunr 
dance along the shores, would commence to 
decompose in the ordinary manner under the 
influence of air and moisture: but when, after 
putrefaction, it was covered with layers of sand 
or calcareous mud, and thus removed from 
atmospheric action, the resulting gases would 


be confined as in a closed retprt, and the car- 
bon and hydrogen, being greatly in excess of 
the oxygen, would enter into such combina- 
tions as we find subsisting in petroleum and 
the various hydrocarbon gases. That the 
Canadian oils furnish no conclusive proof in 
their component parts of an animal origin, is 
not to be urged against the evidence afforded 
by the strata in which they are found. Ani- 
mal and vegetable tissues, when confined with- 
out the presence of oxygen, will give products 
quite closely resembling each other. Indeed, 
chemists have long since proved that some of 
the lowest classes of mollusks now living, to 
which the name of Tunicata has been given, 
have much the same composition in their 
mantle or covering as woody fibre. It is well 
known that the smell of Canadian oils is far 
more offensive than those of the United 
States. The same is the case with Michigan 
oils, and may apply to Kentucky and other, 
oils found in sub-carboniferous strata. The 
subjoined extract, from a recent newspaper 
contains many facts in support of the state- 
ments already made. 


"An active general interest has been awak* 
ened with regard to the petroleum region of 
New York, and it is safe to say that the time 
is not far distant when the Pennsylvania oil 
wells will be paralleled, if they are not dis- 
tanced, by those actively operating in the former 
great State. In Cattaraugus County several 
wells are now working, and in Ontario County 
boring for oil is now being extensively carried 
on. In order to furnish our readers with 
some information in regard to the geographical 
characteristics of the Genesee valley oil region, 
we give below two engravings showing the 
position and comparative thickness of the vari- 
ous strata at a point in this region where two 
wells are now going down. We are permitted, 
through the kindness of Walter S. Hicks, 
Esq., of Bristol, Ontario County, who is en- 
gaged in sinking several wells, to use in our 
description portions of a private letter ad- 
dressed to that gentleman by Professor James 
Hall, the State geologist. Some thirty wells 
are now going down in the locality referred to, 
iand great excitement is said to exist through- 
out the whole region. 

Fig 15. 



1. Portage group. 2. Genesee slate. 3. Hamilton group. 

"Professor Hall says : *The Hamilton group 
is, for the most part, a close, compact shale, 
with few bands of calcareous matter, and few 
open fissures.' Therefore, he thinks, oil is not 
to be expected in any paying quantity until 
the Marcellus shale, in which there is often a 
thick band of limestone, is struck ; but he con- 
cludes, it will be necessary to go down to the 
corniferous limestone, or even through it, to 
the Onondaga salt group below, before finding 
a rock sufficiently fissured or cavernous to con- 


Fig. 16. 

Horison of a well on Wilder 

Horiion of a well on Hick's 


1. Portage group, forming the hills — thickness in all, from' 
600 to 800 feet. 

2. Genesee slate— 150 feet. 

3. Hamilton group, consisting of calcareous limestone, with 
calcareous bands and a black, bituminous shale at base. 

4. Marcellus shale — thickness, together, with that of the 
Hamilton group, 600 to 800 feet. 

5. Gorniferous limestone, 50 to 150 feet. 

6. Onondaga salt group, consisting of impure and unequally 
bedded limestones, beds of plaster, &o.f entire thickness, 800 
to 1,000 feet. 


taiu any considerable reservoirs of oil. Pro- 
fessor Hall is also of the opinion that, at the 
same time, more or less salt water, and per- 
haps strong brines, will be found.- He adds 
that there are sometimes small'masses of sand- 
stone just below the corniferous limestone, and 
if one of these should be struck, a reservoir of 
oil would be penetrated. Large quantities of 
water are to be expected before oil is reached." 

Having thus spent considerable time in the 
notice of such methods of accounting for the 
existence of petroleum as have gained most 
ground, let us rapidly observe the manner in 
which it is stored away beneath the surface of 
the earth, and also some of the best '* oil signs." 

The opinions of geologists, briefly stated, 
are as follows: That the bituminous vapors 
originating from organic deposits have pene- 
trated fissures and cavities of overlying rocks 
caused by erosion and uplifting. As bubble 
after bubble passed through the water gener- 
ally collected in these fissures, a portion, being 
condensed into oil, would float upon the sur- 
face of the water, and the remainder, in -the 


form of inflammable gases, would occupy the 
top of the fissure. Where the gas finds an 
outlet, there is produced a "gas spring;" 
where the water escapes it carries the oil with 
it, and an " oil spring" results. 

That the oil is accumulated in fissures in 
the rocks, and that these fissures are more or 
less vertical, i. e^ narrow and upright cavi- 
ties, is decisively proved by the following 

1. The oil in the same immediate neighbor- 
hood is found at very different depths, and it 
is very seldom that two adjoining wells strike 
it at the same distance benesfVh the surface. 

2. The oils of wells very near each other 
may show a gre&t diflFerenoe in density, color, 

8. The oils from two wells not many rods 
apart may not only vary in specific gravity, 
but the deepest well may contain fresh water, 
while the other casts up salt water mingled 
with the oil. 

From these observations it is evident that 
the oil is not found in horizontal lakes or re- 


servoirs, but in separate, distinct, and more or 
less vertical cavities. Several of these may be 
connected, however, by some channel, and 
thus the supply be quickly replenished when 
one spring or well has ceased to flow. 

According to the point of the fissure struck 
in boring, different material may be yielded. 
If it is pierced near the top, gas escapes with 
violence, but subsequently, as the water tends 
to rise higher in the space thus vacated, the 
oil is also carried to the end of the boring, 
and may be pumped out. If, however, the 
water should enter more rapidly than it is re- 
moved, the oil DMiy be floated to the higher 
parts of the cavity, and cannot be recovered 
until the latter is pumped away. If the 
middle portion of a fissure be tapped, oil ap- 
pears at once in the well, and may even be 
forced up violently by the accumulated gas 
pent up^above. 

In locating oil wells, the following practical 
hints may prove useful. There exists no such 
thing as a specific oil rocJc, or stratum indi- 
cating the presence of oil; as certain distinct 



geological foliations indicate and are found 
associated with some of the precious minerals 

Fig. 17.* 

and metals. Oil* may be struck in all hinds of 
rock, for the fissures containing it may extend 
vertically through many dififerent strata. Nor 
can anything be determined before hand from 
the shape and proximity of hills, as is the case 
in boring artesian wells. 

* Rook Oil, its Geologioal Relatione and Distribution, bj 
Prof. Andrews^ Amer. Jour, of Science and Arts, vol. 32, 1S61, 
pp. 85-93. 


The flow of oil would seem to be caused ex- 
clusively by the pressure of pent-up gas, and 
not, as is the case with artesian wells, pro- 
duced by the weight of water, the head of 
which is higher than the issue. If the position 
be true, that the oil is generated from coal and 
other bituminous strata, we should expect to 
find it at a greater or less height above the 
latter; and indeed Professor Andrews Has 
found oil springs high up on hill sides, one 
hundred feet above the valley below. 

The presence of oil on the surface of water 
is no sure sign of its existence beneath, 
because it may have been transported from a 
distant source. A more favorable indication 
is the accumulation of viscotis, hardened oil, 
as seen in many localities, and called '^tar 
springs." These, as also gas springs,* are valu- 
able omens. 

It should be remembered that whatever 
may be the common idea, no oil well is inex- 

* In locating wells it should be remembered that oil 
and gas springs may have risen to the sarfaoe in a tortu- 
ous and not in a vertical direction. 


haustible, for no fissure, or system of fissures, 
can endure the drainage of a steam-pump for 
any great length of time. 

The experience of other regions has re- 
vealed the fact that some ancient oil springs 
have ceased to flow, whilst others, like thos6 of 
Birmah and Persia, continue to flow as they 
have for ages past apparently. 

•We find in the N. Y. Journal of Commerce 
of April 27, 1865, the following just remarks 
on this subject of the uncertainty of oil wells : — 
" There is nothing more uncertain than an 
oil well. If it* graciously chooses to do so, it 
yields oil in great or small quantities ; but if 
its will be perverse, no amount of coaxing 
will draw out the oleaginous treasure. Nei- 
ther can it be safely predicted that a well 
which yields a dozen barrels to-day will yield 
one to-morrow. They have a well in Athens 
County, Ohio, says a correspondent of the dn- 
cinnati (7a2je<fe, which, when sunk to the oil- 
rock, suddenly spouted forth such a stream of 
oil as to threaten the oleaginous overthrow of 
all that county. But after a while the flow 


subsided, and from the reservoirs hastily con- 
Btructed in the ground one hundred barrels of 
oil were afterwards collected ; since that there 
has been but one well that 'blows,' as the 
workman express it. That well, soon after 
being opened, began to throw out oil to the 
height of twenty feet, but only for a short 
time. Last summer, for a considerable time, 
it observed a regular period of twenty-foUr 
and one-half hours between ^ these 'blows,' 
each day the phenomenon occurring half an 
hour later than on the previous day. At last 
when the time for its 'blowing' reached far 
into the night, it lost its regularity, and now 
seems to be governed by no law, but still 
keeps 'blowing' almost daily. When sup- 
plied with a pump and engine, it stubbornly 
refused to yield at all, and the engine and 
pump w^re taken away, when the well re- 
sumed its 'blowing.'' From another well 
nothing was got for several weeks but water ; 
after being sunk and giving the usual indica- 
tions of oil, it was tubed and prepared for 
pumping. To the dismay of the company, 


onl/ water was obtained as the result of the 
first day's work. Water flowed abundantly 
the second day, but no oil. The third day 
was but a repetition qf the first two, and the 
well was about to be abandoned. One mem- 
ber of the company, however, suggested the 
idea that the water might be exhausted by 
constant pumping, and that then oil would be 
obtained. Being an obstinate man, his counsel 
prevailed, and^ day and night, without ceasing, 
the tireless . engine pumped water a whole « 
fortnight. Still no oil. Another fortnight 
and only water appeared; another and another, 
when lo I the flow of water ceased, and the 
flow of oil began. Eight weeks of constant 
clinging to a theory brought a triumph to the 
obstinate member, and a reward to the whole 
company. On one occasion since, when for 
some reason the engine was stopped for half 
an hour, it required nearly twenty-four hours 
pumping to clear off the water. Again when 
a belt broke and caused a stoppage of fifteen 
minutes, the same thing occurred. The well 
is now kept constantly running, and produces 
from twelve to fifteen barrels a day."' 


General View op the Geological Distri- 
bution OP Petroleum in the United 
States and Canada * 

The lowest geological horizon or rock stra- 
tum in which petroleum is found in large 
quantity, is in West Canada at Enniskillen. 
The oil is in the corniferous limestone. This 
formation in the United States is, in its maxi- 
mum, about 350 or 400 feet thick. 

Immediately overlying the limestone is the 
marcellus shale, which is also highly charged 
with bitumen. It is about 50 feet thick in 
Canada. These two rock-formations, then, 
which in Canada are not over 150 feet in thick- 
ness, are. the reservoirs holding rock-oil in that 
country. Ascending in the geological scale 
and passing over into New York, the next stra- 
tum of rock yielding bitumen, oil, and gas, is 

* From an article in the Scientific American. Compare, 
also, History of Petroleum, by T. S. Hunt, in the London 
Chem. N'ews, July, 1862 ; also Natur. History of New York, 
Part IV. Geology, by James Hall, Albany, 1843. 


there known as the Hamilton Groap, about 
1000 feet thick. The oil springs of Western 
New York, along the banks of its numerous 
lakes, are mainly in this group of rocks. 
They have as yet yielded oil only in small 
quantities for medicinal purposes, but promise 
very fair. 

Above this group succeed black shales, 
known as the Genesee Slate, 300 feet thick. 
The wells of Mecca, Ohio, and others of that 
region are most prdbably in this rock. Above 
the Genesee Slate comes in the Portage Group 
of slates and sandstones, 1700 feet thick. The 
deeper wells of Oil Creek, Pa., will reach the 
sandstones of this group. Still above lie the 
rocks of the Chemung Group, which are 
mainly composed of thin bedded slates and 
limestones. In its maximum it is 3200 feet 
thick, but in Western New York and Pennsyl- 
vania it is much thinner, being only about 
1000 feet thick. Much of the oil of Oil Creek 
is from this group ; 400 or 500 feet of it are 
seen in the cliffs and hills of Oil Creek, the 
Alleghany Eiver and its tributaries above, 
and in Venango County. 


Measured in the maximum development of 
all the rocks enumerated, we find between the 
oil of Canada and Venango County, Pa., 6000 
to 7000 feet of sedimentary rock, all of which 

bear the appearance of having been deposited 
in sea- water. The entire group of rocks enu- 
merated are know a as the Devonian Series 
in Engliind. The oil springs of Eastera 
Canada and New Brunswick, along the Gulf 
of Newfoundland, are in the upper membera 
of this series. 

Leaving for the present those portions of 
the United States where oil has been most 
successfully found, and before comiag into 
the geological strata of the thick and heavy 
oilfl^ we have on the eastera flanks of the 
Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania and 
Virginia, 5000 feet of the Gatskill group of 
rocksp (Ponent of Prof. Bogers.) Lapping 
around the southern outcrop of the coal 
measures of Tennessee^ Kentucky, and Illinois, 
there are 200 feet of the lower carboniferous 
and 800 feet of the middle carboniferous. 
(Umbral of liogers.) A total in the aggregate, 


as measared in Nova Scotia and th% United 
States, of 1500 feet. 

Throughout the whole of the series oil and 
gas springs are found. 

We now come into the true coal measures. 
These are divided into lower, middle, barren, 
and upper measures, a total of the bituminous 
portion of 2500 feet. 

The lowest member of the coal series caps 
the highest hills, near the mouth of Oil Creek, 
and lies about 600 feet above the bed of the 
creek, or 1300 feet above the third sand-rock, 
which is the most abundant oil-producing stra- 

At the Kiskiminetas, Slippery Eock,' Butler 
Co., Pa., and Smithes Ferry, oil is in the lower 
coal measures— €00 feet thick. High up 
Kiskiminetas and on the Monongahela Biver, 
oil is found in the middle coal series 1000 feet 
thick. At Marietta, Ohio, and in the oil region 
around the strata of the upper coal, are the 
productive series. 

To conclude, then, oil is found through 
' 24,000 feet of rocks, as measured vertically in 


the geo]pgical scale, and geographically from 
Nova Scotia to Lake St. Clair, and from Vir- 
ginia to Tennessee Eiver. The geographical 

area covered by the oil-beariug group of 
rocks in the United States, Caoadaj New 
Bruuswick, and Nova Scotia, cannot be lesfi 
than 200,000 square miles, 




Amongst the most interesting discoveries 
of modern times, must be ranked that of pre- 
paring from an oily substance named aniline^ 
a whole series of the most superb dyes, causing 
almost a revolution in the art of dyeing and 
printing. Aniline or phenylamine» CjaH^N, or 

=«N < Q*o; constitutes an artificial organic 

alkaloid analogous to ammonia =«= NH3 ; the 


radical |)henyles=CijH, replacing one equiva- 
lent of hydrogen. It may be obtained in mani- 
fold ways for laboratory purposes thus : — 

Powdered indigo digested with a strong 
solution of caustic potash and subjected to dis- 
tillation yields a small amount of aniline. 
From the indigo plant {Indigo/era anil) it de- 
rived its name, Aniline, synonymoufi with 
Kyanole, 13enzidam, and Crystalline. 

It is now always prepared for industrial pur* 
poses from coal tar, 

Ist. It may be procured directly from coal 
tar, i. e,j as a biproduct in the manufacture of 
the heavier photogenic oils and of parafSne. 
These oils are, as stated elsewhere, decolorized 
and purified by means of acids and alkalies; 
now the ready formed aniline forms, together 
with leucoline, picoline, &c., a portion of the 
dark brown acid wash, 

Pr^aralion of Aniline directly from Coal Tar, 

The ready formed aniline is extracted from 
coal tar oils as^ follows, according to Uof- 
mann: — 



The mixture is agitated with rather concen- 
trated hydrochloric acid, and the supernatant 
layer of oil separated from the acid liquor; 
this latter is brought in contact with new 
quantities of oil until nearly saturated, so that 
only a slight acid reaction prevails. 

This solution is now placed in a copper still 
and treated with an excess of milk of lime, and 

The condensed products in the receiver are 
collected, carefully dissolved in hydrochloric 
acid, and filtered through coarse filtering' 
paper, which retains that portion of indiflFerent 
oil floating on the rest of the liquid. 

The filtered solution is concentrated in a 
water-bath and treated with hydrate of potash 
or soda, whence the basic oil or aniline sepa- 
rates and swims on the top of the alkaline 
liqu9r. It is removed with a pipette, brought 
in contact with melted hydrate of potash to 
deprive it of water, and rectified. The receiver 
is changed and the operation suspended as 
soon as the product passing over furnishes no 
longer, upon addition of a few drops of chio- 


ride of lime solution, the purple reaction of 

Origin of Aniline in Coal Tar. 

The answer to the question as to how^ this 
alkaloid originates in eoal tar seems to be this, 
It must be derived from carbolic acid or the 
hydrated oxide of phenyle found therein to 
the amount of eight to ten per cent. For if 
this bod J together with ammonia gas is passed 
through a red -hot tube, the following reaction 
takes place: — 

C„H.O+HO + NH3 = -[^=^^'| + snO 

Hj(1 rated oxuLe \ 

of plienjltt or I'l'-^^^^^^^'^'^^^ll^B* "h Water, 
carbolic iiciii. J 

It has been ehown that a small amount of 
aniline may be produced by saturating car- 
bolic acid with ammonia, heating the mixture 
in a hermetically sealed glass tube to 572*^ F. 
by means of an oil bath» Indeed ^ if we heat 
in a test-tube a little carbolic acid preyiously 
saturated with ammonia^ we obtain upon the 


addition of a few drops of chloride of lime 
solution the blue reaction of (impure) aniline. 

On the contrary, aniline, may, when acted 
upon by nitrous acid—NOg, be decomposed 
into carbolic acid. 
Cj^,N + NO3 = C„H,0+HO + HO + 2N 

Aniline. Nitrous Carbolic Acid. Water. Nitro- 
Aoid. gen. 

The experiment succeeds best by heating 
hydro-chloride of aniline with nitrate of silver 

It appears possible that hereafter aniline 
may be advantageously produced by distilling 
nitrogenous substances, such as bone black, &c., 
together with the bituminous coal. 

Dr. R. Wagner* has experimentally proved 
recently that, by passing superheated steam 
(at 300° C.«572° F.) and vapors of phenic acid 
(heavy tar oils) over alkaline cyanides, for 
instance cyanide of barium, the amount of 
aniline is largely increased. 

* Jahresberioht, 1860 ; also L. IP. Krieger's repeatedlj 
mentioned treatise, p, 45. 


Artificial Preparation of Aniline. 

A trnich more fruitfal source wbence ani- 
line may ba prepared is benzole^ entering into 
the com]}Osition of coal tar naphtha. Benzole, 
or the hydride of phenyle, haa the forranla 
^Cj,n^j or Cj^ITjHp The process of manu* 
factnring aniliae from benzole cod slats in the 
following two operations : — 

1. Conversion of benzole into nitro-benzole. 

2* Kednction of nitro-benzole into aniline. 

The preparation of nitro benzole on a com* 
mercial scale is accomplished in a worm-like 
apparatus made of glass or stoneware. The 
upper end terminates like the pronga of a 
fork in two branches. Through one of these 
openings fiowa benzole, and throngh the other 
a fine stream of fuming nitric acid, or a 
mixture of commercial nitric acid with half 
its volume of salphuric acid. The worm is 
surrounded by cold water. The oitro-benzole 
collected at the lower end of the worm is first 
washed with water, then with a solution of 


carbonate of soda, and next deprived of its 
water by means of chloride of calcium and 

Nitro-benzole has the chemical formula 
- O^H^O, • 
or, more rationally expressed, 

Its formation from benzole is explained by 
the following equation : — 

c^H,+H+NO, - c »H;sro, + HO 

Transformation of Nitro-benzole into Aniline. 

Nitro-benzole when acted upon by different 
reducing agents such as sulphide of hydrogen, 
metallic zinc, acetate of the protoxide of irou, 
and acetic acid, loses four equivalents of 
oxygen, and takes up two of hydrogen, being 
thereby converted into aniline. B&hamp 
recommends that for the advantageous reduc- 
tion of one part of nitro-benzole, there be 
employed one part of acetic acid, and one and 


one-half parts of iron filings ; the reaction may 
be expressed as follows: — 

C^jH^NO, + 2Ac + 4Fe « 

Nitro-benzole. Aoetio Acid. Iron. 

C„H,N + 2(AcFeA) 

Aniline. Acetate of Peroxide of Iron. 

The reaction takes place in a retort of iron, 
and the mixture becoming hot by itself, with- 
out the aid of external heat, the vapors are 
condensed in a well-cooled receiver containing 
some acetic acid. The condensed products 
consist of aniline, acetate of aniline, and also 
some free nitro-benzole. These are retained 
in the retort, and distilled to dryness. 

The distilled liquor is treated with fused 
caustic potash, whence the aniline separates 
as an oily layer, which, after being removed, 
is distilled again. 

The residue in the retort still contains a 
good deal of aniline, which is extracted with 
sulphuric acid^ and the ablution filtered and 
evaporated to dryness. The remainder is 
sulphate of aniline, from which, by means of 
an excess of potassa liquor and rectification, 


the aniliDe is obtained. Theoretically we 
ought to obtain from one equivalent of nitro- 
benzole, one equivalent of aniline, t. e^ 75.6 per 
cent. In practice we obtain about |, t. e.^ 60 
per cent. 

Chemical Properties of Aniline. 

Pure aniline is a colorless liquid, having an 
aromatic odor, and a burning taste. It is 
slightly soluble in water, and easily soluble in 
alcohol and ether. The commercial article is 
generally brown colored, and of a coal oil-like 

Chemical Test for Benzole, 

As it becomes often necessary to examine 
a mixture of oils for benzole, and as there are 
as yet such contradictory statements in regard 
to its presence in petroleum, the following test 
by Prof. Hofmann may be applied : — 

A drop of the mixture is heated in a test- 
tube with some fuming nitric acid, to convert 
the benzole, if present, into nitro-benzole. A 
quantity of water is then added to precipitate 


the nitro-beozole in small drops, which must be 
taken up by ether. The ethereal solution is 
then poured into another small tube, and equal 
volumes of alcohol and diluted hydrochloric acid 
are next added and a few fragments of granu- 
lated zinc dropped in. In a few minutes suffi- 
cient hydrogen will be disengaged for reducing 
the nitro-benzole into aniline ; the latter is found 
to be combined with the acid. The liquor is 
super-saturated with an alkali and shaken with 
ether, which dissolves the aniline thus set free* 
A drop of this ethereal solution allowed to 
evaporate in a watch-glass, and mixed after 
the evaporation of the ether with a drop of a 
solution of hypochlorite of lime, will show 
the violet tints which characterize aniline. 
The operations may be executed rapidly and 

Aniline is now prepared by the ton to satisfy 
the constantly increasing demands of industry ; 
hence the consumption of benzole has become 
so great that none can be imported from Eng- 
land, formerly the chief place of export for the 
European Continent. 


The tar of all the gas works, which, at least 
where the retorts of Chamotte are employed, 
does not contain over 1 to 1} per cent, of ben- 
zole, is insufficient to meet the demand, and 
consequently much of it will have to be directly 
distilled from coal. Fortunately great purity of 
benzole is not required in the manufacture of 
the so-called tar colors, if it is at all advan- 
tageous. . ** 

Thus Hofmann considers that there exists -a 
necessity of mixing aniline and toluidine, to 
produce aniline red. 

Preparation op Aniline Colors. 

Nearly all oxidizing substances in contact 
with aniline produce coloring. Many different 
receipts are frequently recommended for pre- 
paring one and the same color. We have 
practically convinced ourselves, that by varying 
the quantitative proportions of the materials, 
changing the temperature of the bath, and em- 
ploying different mordants, almost any variety 
of colors and shades of color may be obtained, 


at least on wool and silk * The colors on 
cotton appear less fine and varied. 

Until a comparatively recent period, objec- 
tions were raised against aniline colors, on 
account of their want of durability when ex- 
posed to sunlight, etc.; it was said that these, 
equalling in beauty the tints of flowers, had 
also their fragility, but even these objections 
have now in a great measure been overcome, 
and in some cases entirely removed. 

The colors are fixed upon fabrics with and 
without mordants. The following mordants 
are usually employed : alum and cream tartar, 
cream tartar and tin composition, tannin, etc. 
To fasten the dyes upon cotton fabrics, the 
goods have to be albuminized, or prepared in 
an oil bathf like turkey red, or in a soap bath. 

In printing . goods with aniline colors the 
solutions are thickened with albumen, gluten, 
.gum, etc., and the printed goods steamed. 

* A great variety of colored patterns, inolxiding, besides 
the leading colors, also olive, drabs, brown, etc., have been 
prepared for the mnsenm of the Department of Agriculture. 

t Composed of sweet oil, sulphuric acid, alcohol, and 


In the following we give a few practical 
receipts to prepare leading colors; to enter more 
fully into the matter would require a treatise 
by itself* 

1. Aniline Bed, syn., tviih Fuchsine, Fuchsiacine^ 
Mosaniline, and Magenta. 

It may be obtained in the following manner 
according to Brooman : — 

Three parts of anhydrous bichloride of tin 
(spiritus libavii fumans) are slowly poured into 
four parts of aniline, stirring the mixture con- 
stantly, and heating it to boiling for fifteen to 
twenty minutes. 

When cold the mass is pasty, and the color- 
ing principle may be extracted from it by boil- 
ing with large quantities of water and filtering 
the solution whilst hot. The fuchsine separates 
as the liquor grows cold. 

* To those interested in this new and highly interesting 
branch of industry, we would recommend the following 
treatise as the best : *' Theories und praotisohe Anwendung 
von Anilin in der F&rberei und Druckerei, Ton Lndwig L 
Krieg 2te Aufl." Berlin, 18 62. 


Additions of chloride of sodium, Bochelle salt, 
etc., deposit it more completely. It is collected 
and dissolved in hot water, alcohol, or wood- 
spirit, and the solutions employed for dyeing. 

Fuchsine is also soluble in ether, benzine, 
and bisulphide of carbon. 

The fuchsine when evaporated to dryness 
assumes a metallic, golden green aspect. 
* In the following table are enumerated some 
of the other processes by which fuchsine, fre- 
quently of a somewhat different composition, 
may be prepared from aniline. 





5? b 

g fc g fc 

7 a d s 

CO C^ 5: CO CO CO 

I a 1 I H I 





5 § 

a Z 





I i ^ 

^ ■* & 2 S ••§ 
^ 2^ § S ^ 



6 -g -2Q I I ^'S I s 





2. Aniline Violetj syn., tmih Violine, Indisine^ 
Pourpre Frangaise^ Anileine^ Phenamein^ 

There exist different shades of this color, 
either the blue or red tint prevailing, whence 
the adoption of the additional names — 

Aniline purple, 

Eoseine (color of the rose). 
They are evidently most closely allied, are 
formed under the same circumstances, and 
have almost identical properties toward chemi- 
cal reagents. 


W. Perkins and A. H. Church mix equiva- 
lent proportions of sulphate of aniline (Tolui- 
dine, &c.) and bichromate of potassa. ^he 
black precipitate is filtered ofi^ washed with 
water until free from sulphate of potash, and 
dried. The dry product is treated with coal 
tar naphtha, to extract resinous matter until the 
solvent ceases to be brown. After this, the 
mass is repeatedly boiled with alcohol or wood 


spirit, which extracts the desired coloring prin- 
ciple. The solutions, when distilled in a 
retort to regain the solvent, leave a beautiful 
bronze-colored substance behind. It has a 
reddish hue, and is known as Aniline purple. 

Dr. Price proceeds thus : — 

1 equivalent of anilineas(93 parts). 

2 equivalents of sulphuric acid (98 parts 
spec. grav.« 1.850), are mixed. 

20 parts of- water added and the whole 
boiled (212° F.). 

1 equivalent of finely pulverized binoxide 
of lead (119.6 parts) is added next, and the 
whole kept boiling for some time and filtered 
whilst hot. The filtrate is distilled with caustic 
potash or soda, until all free aniline has passed 
over. The residue is thrown on a filter and 
slightly washed with water, and then dissolved 
by a dilute boiling solution of tartaric acid. 
After filtering, the solution may be concentrated 
and used in dyeing or boiled down to dryness, 
and the mass dissolved in alcohol, and thence 


be obtained by evaporation as a bronze colored 

Instead of binoxide of lead, peroxide of 
manganese may be substituted. 

The dye, together with some protoxide of 
manganese, is thrown down from the filtered 
alcoholic extract by caustic potash^ and the 
violine redissolved in alcohol. 

Prof. BoUey states that a violine bath may 
be prepared by treating a solution of sulphate 
of aniline with chlorine water or a weak solu- 
tion of chloride of lime. Silk assumes a fine 
violet color in the bath when warmed. 

According to the same chemist, aniline red 
and violet have the same chemical composition 
and are isomeric modifications.* 

The annexed directions prove that a slight 
change in the proportion of ingredients pro- 
duces alteration in color. 

♦ L. J. Krieg, p. 141. 


Purpufin {Couleur de pourpre). 

2 equivalents of aniline (186 parts). 

2 equivalents of oil of vitriol (98 parts). 

8720 parts of water. 

1 equivalent of binoxide of lead (1 19.6 parts). 


60 parts of aniline. 

26 parts of oil of vitriol 66^ B: 

1000 parts of water. 

82 parts of binoxide of lead. 

Roseine {Cotdeur de rose). 

1 equivalent of aniline (93 parts). 

1 equivalent oil of vitriol (49.0 parts). 
1860 parts of water. 
2 equivalents of binoxide of lead (239.2 parts). 


50 parts of aniline. 
26 parts oil of vitriol 66^ B. 
100 parts of water. 
128 parts of binoxide of lead. 
A slight agitation of aniline purple with 
moist binoxide of lead furnishes Roseine. 


Aniline blue, according to A. Schlumberger,* 

1 part of aniline red is mixed with 8 .parts 
of aniline and 1^ part of acetic acid, and the 
mass treated with safficient carbonate of caus- 
tic soda to decompose the acetate of aniline 
formed whilst acetate of soda is now being 
produced. The mixture is Tieated for some 
time at a temperature between 856^ F. and 
410*^ F., until the desired shade of blue appears. 
The product is precipitated with strong hydro- 
chloric acid; and heated to boiling, whence the 
blue dye separates in a solid state, and can be 
removed from the liquor with . a ladle. To 
get rid of the adhering acid, it is repeatedly 
boiled with water, pressed and dried. That 
portion of coloring matter dissolved by the 
strong acid can be regained upon the addition 
of water, which precipitates a blue of a second 
quality, having more of a reddish tint. 

The dried blue dye is soluble in alcohol 

* Lond. Jour, of Arts, and Prof. R. Bottger's Polytech- 
nisohes Notizblatt, Jahrgang, zix. 1864. 


and wood spiriti and these solutions are used 
for coloring. 

Aniline hroum. 

G. de Laire, of Paris, has taken out a patent 
in England for its manu&cture. It is obtained 
by acting upon aniline violet or blue with a 
salt of aniline, thus : — 

To 1 part of violine, add— 

4 parts of anhydrous chloride of aniline, 
raise the temperature of the solution rapidly 
to 464° F., maintaining it for one to two hours, 
until the mass turns brown, and yellow vapors 
with a strong garlic odor are given off. 

The brown coloring matter is soluble in 
water, alcohol, and acids, and may in this form 
be used for dyeing. Kitchen salt precipitates 
it from the solution, and serves thus to purify 
it still further. 

Instead of aniline violet, the material pro- 
ducing it, such as arseniate of aniline, can be 


Aniline greeUi according to Usebe.* 

An aniline salt is dissolved in hydrochloric, 
sulphuric acid, &c., and common rectified 
aldehydssC^Hp added and the mixture left 
standing at a common temperature for eighteen 
to fwenty-four hours, whence it assumes a 
greenish-blue hue; it is then diluted with 
water containing a little acid to^ prevent the 
blue dye from falling, and gradually hyposul- 
phite of soda added. It has to be seen that 
the mineral acid used for solution is constantly 
kept in excess. By heating now to boiling, 
sulphurous acid is evolved and sulphur thrown 
down. The soliation is filtered whilst hot. If 
an excess of the hyposulphite was employed, 
the filtrate is yellowish-green. 

The colors produced from the chemically 
interesting coal-tar hydrocarbon, naphthaline, 
are as yet of but slight technical signification, 
and may be omitted "by us. 

* Schweizer Polys. Zeitsciirift, 1864, p. 77. 



The increase in the oil trade during the last 
two years is owing to the increased foreign de- 
mand. For home consumption alone, a com- 
paratively small fraction of the figures given 
below would suflSce to glut the market. Europe 
has greatly exceeded the United States in the 
multiplicity of uses to which petroleum has 
been put. Of late discoveries of its properties 
have so increased in number abroad that the 
supply proves inadequate to the demand. 

The table shows how extensive the demand 
has already become, and, together with our. 
account of the article itself, will serve in some 
degree to foreshadow the future. It is impos- 



sible to foresee, with even an approximation to 
correctness, the extent to which this product 
will become an article of exportation and of 
usefulness throughout the world. 

We republish from the New York Shipping 
and Commercial List : 



To Liverpool . 

. 734.755 



. 1,430,710 


Glasgow, &c. 

. 368,402 





Falmouth, Engh 

md . . 316,402 

' 623,176 

Grangemouth, E 



Cork, &c. . 

. 3,310,362 


Bowling, Englao 

d . . 87,164 


. 2,324,017 



. 1,982,075 




Dunkirk . 

. 232,803 


. . . 79,581 




Antwerp . 

. 4,149,821 



. 971.905 





Hamburg . 

. 1,186,080 



. 532,926 






Cronstadt .... 



Cadiz and Malaga, . 



Tarragona and Alicante 





Gibraltar .... 



Oporto .... 


* 2,339 

Palermo .... 



Genoa and Leghorn . 



Trieste " . 



Alexandria, Egypt . 



. 167,195 


Canary Islands . 



Madeira . 


Bilboa . . • . 


China and East Indies 






Australia . 

. . 377,884 


Otago, N. Z. . 



Sidney, N. S. W. . 




. 149,676 


Mexico .... 

. 112,986 



. 418,034 


Argentine Republic . 



Cisalpine Republic . 



Chili .... * 




. 169,061 


British Honduras 



British Guiana . 





British West Indies 



British N. American colonies 28,902 


Danish West Indies . . 8,463 


Dutch West Indies 



French West Indies 






Central America 






New Granada . 



Porto Eico 



Total gallons 

. 21,280,489 


During the following years there has been 

exported from other ports as follows: 




864. 1803. 


Boston . . . 1,696,307 2,049,431 


Philadelphia" . 7,760,148 5,595,738 


Baltimore . . 929,971 915,866 


Portland • . '3 


5 342,082 


10,457,188 8,703,117 4,167,158 
The total exports from the United States 

are — 

1862 ..... 10,887,701 

1863 28,250,712 

1864 31,745,687 

No. of barrels of 40 gallons each, 

Value from 
average prices. 









(per gallon). 

January . 

. 31^4 cents. 

52| cents. 

February . 

. 30i 


55| " 


. 31i 


59J « 


. 37A 


64A " 


. 38 


65^ " 


. 44i 




. 52^ 




. 52f 


87} " 


. 46^ 


85f " 


. .401 


75} " 


. . 45tV 


86A " 


. . 52f 


92yV " 

Average for 1864 

. 41.81 



74.61 " 


for 11 


. . 28.13 


51.74 " 




Alcohol series of hydrocarbons .... 42 

Aluminam . • 17 

American Druggist's Circular quoted . . 72, 107 
Andrews, Prof. E. B., drawings of the anticlinal lines 

near which oil originates . . 110, 112, 113 

quoted . , 150 

Aniline 71 

artificial preparation of .... 165 

blue . . . . . . . .179 

brown . . 180 

chemical properties of 168 

colors, preparation of 170 

origin of, in coal tlr 163 

preparation of, from coal tar . , 160, 161 

red . . ^ 172 

transformation of nitro-benzole into . .166 

violet - . 175 

Artificial products, comparison of, with those found 

in nature . . . • . . . .66 
Avery well 140 


Baird, H. C, quoted .• ^^ 

Barlow, Peter, quoted 15 

188 INDEX, 


Barrels • . . . 106, 116 

Beech-wood tar, ingredients of .... 31 

Benzine, absence of, in American petroleum . » 133 

or naphtha 21 

Benzole, absence of^ in some American oils • . 82 

chemical test for 168 

series of hydrocarbons 42 

Bitnmen, elastic 68 

Bitumens, localities of « 90 

Bituminization, table showing the decrease in the 

proiH)rtion of oxygen in 132 

Bituminous shale, theory of deriyation of petroleum 

from 134 

oil, history of . . . ' . ' . .62 

slate, distillation of 21 

yield of, on distillation ... 52 

Black shales, oil in . . • . • . 139 

Bogs 129,130 

Boring, new process of 119 

of oil wells 109 

time required for . • « • • • • 117 

Brawley well 140 


Cailletet, experiment of 131 

Canada, oil in . . . . . .99, 100 

oils 80 

qualities of 101 

Canadian oil region, dip of rocks in . . . 141 
Cannel coal, products of the distillation of . .40 

Caoutchouc, mineral 68 

Chemical composition of petroleum . . 70, 73 

Chemistry, influence of, on the mechanic arts • 13 





. 1 


Coal as a fuel, national importance of 



beds, geographical connection of oil with 


nnder Rangoon oil wells . 


distillation of 


from the Tyne 


in the United States . 


measures, origin of 


oil in . 

. 139 

Pennsylvania anthracite 


semi-anthracite . 

. 133 

South Staffordshire 

. 133 

the power exerted by . 


wood or turf, products obtained from 

. 24 

Coal oil or kerosene, purification of 

. 60 

tar creasote 

. 35 

Coal tar, distillation of 

. 45 

Comparison of artificial products with those found 

in nature ...... 


. '66 

Cornwall well 


. 140 


. . 



De La Rue & Miller, examination of Birmese naphtha 82 
Derricks, erection of . . . . . .111 

Deville, experiments of 131 

Devonian rocks, oil found in Canada and New York 136 
Distillation, dry, of organic bodies ... 24 

of coal tar 45 

Drill 111,120 

Drill-stem . .120 

Dry distillation, petroleum must have been pro- 
duced by 133 

or destructive distillation of organic bodies . 24 

190 INDEX. 



Elastic bitumen 68 

Empire spring 98 

Empjrenmatic oil, history of 62 

Engine, derrick, and connections • • • • 118 

Engines . . . 114 

advantages of, over spring poles . . .114 

Eupion or light oil 31 

Export of petroleum 181 

Faraday, the manner in which he originally obtained 

benzole 45 

Fires in wells 103 

Frankland, Dr., quoted 87 

French Creek . . * / ^"^ 

French process of boring 119 

Fuchsine 172 

processes for manufacture of • • .173 


Geological distribution of petroleum in the United 

States and Canada . • ... . .155 
Qesner, Dr., quoted 93 

Hall, Prof. James, quoted . . . . , 144 
Hard rocks contain small quantity of petroleum . 109 

Hatchetin 69 

Heat, source of . . • . . . .131 

Heavy oil . . . . ... .32 

Heer, Oswald, quoted ...... 138 

History of bituminous and kerosene or empyreu- 
matic oils 62 

INDEX. 191 


History of petroleum or rock oil . . • ,89 

Hitchcock, Professor, quoted 14 

Hofmann, Prof., quoted .168 

Humfrey, Charles, quoted ... . . .75 

Hydrocarbons 42 


Idrialin .69 

lUumiuating power of petroleum .... 87 

Jarr 121 


Kapnomore . 32 

Kerosene oil, history of 62 

purification of 60 

Kildare, chemical works at 53 


Lake tar 93 

Lava, marsh gas from 131 

Lebon, his application of carbo-hydrogen gases to 

illumination 27 

Lesley, Prof. J. P., quoted 139 

Lesquereuz quoted 138 

Light oil, or eupione 31 

Lignite 133 

Lignites, tertiary, in Trinidad, Lombardy, and Middle 

Asia 129 

Linuestones impregnated by petroleum • . . 109 

Locating wells, hints in 149 

Logan, Sir T^illiam, quoted 141 

Lyell, Sir Chas., quoted 135 

192 INDBX. 


Magenta ........ 172 

Magneeiam 17 

Mahoning oil region » dip of rocks at . . . 140 
Manufacture of photogenic oils, &c., from coal, wood, 

and turf 44 

Manfield & Young's patents 39 

Marsh gas from lava 131 

given oflf by plants in peat bogs . . . . 129 

Mineral caoutchouc 68 

Murdoch, his application of coal gas to illumination 27 

Muspratt, Dr. S., analysis of Canadian petroleum . 79 


Naphtha or benzine 21 

Naphthaline ^ , .42 

and paranaphthaline, formation of . . 44 

Natural science, influence of 13 

Nature, hidden force of 13 

New York, oil in 99 

Nitro-benzole, transformation of, into aniline . . 166 

Ohio, oil in 98 

oil springs in 110 

Oil and coal regions, apparent connection of . . 139 
business, magnitude of .... 106 

Creek 94, 95, 96 

geological position of oil in . . 105 

rooks, dip of 139 

first obtained by boring, 1819 ... 96 
formation, theories of . . . . 126, 127 
may have been forced by pressure far away 

from place of original distillation . . -128 
photogenic . . . . . ,. .24 
tools, where to be had cheapest and best . 117 
wells, cost of sinking . . . . Ill, 114 




Oil wells, hints in locating 149 

Origin of petroleum 124 

Organic bodies, dry or destructive distillation of . 24 

origin of petroleum . . . . . . 125 

Ozokerite, or fossil wax 69 

marsh gas, 


Paper, raw materials for manufacture of 
Paraffine, or tar-wax 

series of hydrocarbons 
Parrish, Edw., quoted 
Peat .... 

bogs, plants in, give oflf 

or turf from Hanover, yield of 
Pelouze & Cahours . 

on American petroleum 
Pennsylvania, oil in 

oils, qualities of . 

petroleum in 
Percy, Dr., experiments of 
Petroleum, export of 

discovery and development of, properties of 

geological distribution of 
position of . • 

history of . ... 

illuminating power of . 

impregnates limestone, sandstone, 

in Pennsylvania . 

native, discovery of 

on the American Continent 

origin of . . . 

or rock oil, its chemical composition 

prices of 


21, 37 

and shales 




























194 INDEX. 


Petroleum, qualities of those from different localities 101 

refining of , .84 

Pettenkofer*s apparatus for manufacture of gas from 

wood . . . ; 27- 

Petzholdt, Dr. A., experiments .... 126 

PhiUipswell 98,140 

Photogenic oils 24 

manufacture of; from coal, wood, and turf . 44 

Picamar 32 

Pilla, ohservation of . . . . . , 131 

Pipe-tongs . , ^ 121 

Pittsburg petroleum 108 

Preparation of aniline colors 170 

Pressure, effect of, in forcing condensed Tolatile pro- 
ducts to seek a high level 128 

Prices of petroleum . 186 

Products of distillation of cannel coal and their 

chemical composition .... 40 

of wood, coal, or turf 26 

Purification of coal oil 60 

^rirple * . . .175 

-Purpurin , . , 173 

Pjrene .43 

Quinn, A., patent still . . . . . ' . 86 


Eangoon oil, analysis of 75 

Reamer 114,120 

Refining of petroleum 84 

Reichenbach, discoveries of ... . 31, 39 
discoveries of constituents now prepared from 
petroleum . .• . . .- . 20 



Retinite or retinasphalt • • • • • • 68 

Retinasphalt or retinite 68 

Rocks, dip of, in the Oil Creek region • • . 140 
. Rogers, Prof. H. D., observations of, on volatile sub- 
stances in Appalachian coal fields • . 135 

qnoted 15 

Rope tools, advantages of '• . • • .116 

Roseine . . 178 

Round-reamer 120 


Sand-pnmp . • . . . 
Sandstones impregnated by petroleum • 
Schorlemmer's analysis of cannel coal oils 

his examination of oils 
Scientific American quoted 

discoveries, facts in regard to 
important . 
Seed bag • • . • 

Seneca Indians 

Shales impregnated by petroleum 
Shaw, Thomas, quoted . 
Spring poles 

advantages of, over engines 
Strata at Bristol, Ontario County, N. 

114, 121 







. Tar, beech-wood, ingredients of 

constituents of, from bituminous slate 
of, from peat or turf • 
Tar-wax or paraffine • • . • 
Tate, A. N., analyses of petroleum . 

quoted ...... 


. 196 INDEX. 


Temperature, variation of resnlts with . • 44, 55 

Temper screw . . . . • . . . 120 
Thermometer for determining the temperatures at 

which difft^rent oils explode .... 103 

Titusville 97 

dip of rocks at 140 

Troost, experiment of 131 

Turf, products obtained from 24 

Uncertainty of wells 152 


Vegetable matter, dry or destructive distillation of 25 

Venango County 97 

Violine 176 

Vohl, Prof., analysis of Rangoon oil ... .75 


Websky, Dr. Justus, quoted . . . . . 129 

Wells, uncertainty of 152 

West Virginia, oil in . . . , . . 98 
Wood, coal, or turf, products obtained from . .24 
Wood tissue . 133 

IrHcikal anb^dettHfic^0oIis, 




INTO. • 40 TTIT* A» 1 aen -u. t ^txroot, 


^ • • • > 

tJh Any of the following Books will be sent by mail, free 
of postage, at the publication price. Catalogues furnished 

on application. 

^ ■•■• • > 

American Miller and Millwright's Assistants 

* A new and thoroughly revised Edition, with additional 
Engravings. By William Carter Hughes. In one vol- 
ume, 12 mo., $1.25 

Armengaud, Amoroux, and Jolinson. 

TRIAL DESIGN, and Machinist's and Engineer's Drawing 
Companion ; forming a complete course of Meichanical 
Engineering and Architectural Drawing. From the French 
of M. Armengaud tjie elder, Prof, of Design in the Con- 
servatoire of Arts and Industry, Paris, and MM. Armen- 
gaud the younger, and Amouroux, Civil Engineers. Re- 
written and arranged, with additional matter and plates, 
selections from and examples of the most useful and 
generally employed mechanism of the day. By William 
Johnson, Assoc. Inst. C. E., Editor of **The Practical 
Mechanic's Journal." Illustrated by fifty folio steel 
plates and fifty wood-ents. A new>edition, 4to.,...$10.00 

Among the contents are :— Linear Drawing^ Definitions and ProMrma. 
Fate I. Applications, Designs for inlaid Pavements, Ceilings ahd 
Balconies, Plate II. Sweeps, Sections and Mouldings, Plate III. £ie 
mentary Gothic Forms and Rosettes, Plate IV. Ovals, Ellifsesi 


Faraboins and Volutes, Plate V. Rules and Practical Data. SXudy q* 
Projection^ Elementary Principles, Plate VI. Of Prisms and other 
Solids, Plate VII. Rules and Practical Data. On Coloring Sections, with 
Appl (yt/{<m«— Conventional Colors, Composition or Mixture or Colors, 
Plate X. Continuation of the Study of Projections— Vne of sections— de« 
tails of machinery, Plate XI. Simple applications— spindles, shafts, 
couplings, wooden patterns, Plate XII. Method of constructing a 
wooden model or pattern of a coupling, Elementary applications- 
rails and chairs for railways, Plate XIII. Hule$ and Practical Data" 
Strength of material. Resistance to compression or crushing loi-ce, 
Tensional Resistance, Resistance to flexure, Resistance to torsion, 
Friction of surfaces in contact. 

The Intersectiom and Development or Surfaces, with Ai^ 
PLICATIONS.— TA« Intersection of Cylinders and Cones, Plate XIV. Tht 
Delineation and Development of Helices, Screws a.nd SerpentfneSt Plata 

XV. Application of the helix— the construction of a staircase, Plate 

XVI. The Intersection of surfaces— applications to stop-cocks, Plate 

XVII. Rules and Practical Da/a— Steam, Unity of heat. Heating surface, 
Calculation of the dimensions of boilers, Dimensions of tiregrates, 
Chimneys, Safety-valves. 

The Study and Construction or Toothed Gear.— Involute, cy- 
cloid, and epicycloid, Plates XVIII. and XIX. Involute, Fig. 1, Plate 

XVIII. Cycloid, Fig. 2, Plate XVIII. External epicycloid, described 
by a circle rolling about a fixed circle inside it. Fig. 3. Plate XIX. 
Internal epicycloid, Fig. 2, Plate XIX. Delineation or a rack and 
pinion in gear. Fig. 4. Plate XVIII. Gearing of a worm with a worm- 
wheel, Figs. 6 and 6, Plate XVIII. Cylindrical or Spur Geanng, Plate 

XIX. Practical delineation of a couple of Spur-wheels, Plate XX. 
The Delineation and Construction of Wooden Patterns for Toothed Wheels. 
Plate XXI. Rtdes and Practical Do/a— Toothed gearing. Angular and 
circumferential velocity of wheels, Dimensions of gearing. Thickness 
of the teeth. Pitch of the teeth, Dimensions of the web, Number and 
dimensions of the arms, wooden patterns. 

Continuation of the Study of Toothed Gear.— Design for a 
pair of bevel-wheels in gear, Plate XXII. Construction of woo<len 
patterns for a pair of bevel-wheels, Plate XXIIl. Involute and 
Helical Teeth, Plate XXIV. Contrivances for obtaining Differential 
Movements—The delineation of eccentrics and cams, Plate XXV. Rules 
and Practical Doto— Mechanical work of effect, The simple machines, 
Centre of gravity. On estimating the power of prime movers. Calcu- 
lation for the brake. The fall of bodies, Momentum, Central forces. 

Elementary Principles of Shadows.— SAad<no« of Prisms. PyrO' 

midsand Cylinders, Plate XXVI. PHnciples of Shading, Plate XXVII. 
Continuation of the Study of Shadows, Plate XXVIII. Tuscan Order, 
Plate XXIX. Rules and Practical Do^ft— Pumps, Hydrostatic principles, 

Forcing pumps. Lifting and forcing pumps. The Hydrostatic press^ 
Hydrostatical calculations and data — discharge of water through dif- 
ferent orifices. Gaging of a water-course of uniform section and fall, 
Velocity of the bottom of water-courses. Calculation of the discharge 
of water through rectangular orifices of narrow edges. Calculation of 
the discharge of water through overshot outlets. To determine the 
width of an overshot outlet. To determine the depth of the outlet, 
Outlet with a spout or duct. 

Application of Shadows to Toothed Gear, Plate XXX. Ap- 
plication of Shadows to Screws, Plate XXXI. Application of Shadows to 
a boiler and its Furnace, Plate XXXII. Shading in Black— Shading in 
Colfirs, Plate XXXIII. 

The Cutting and Shaping of Masonry, Plate XXXIV. Bules 
and Practical Data — Hydraulic motors. Undershot water wheels, with 

Klane floats and a circular channel. Width, Diameter, Velocity, Num- 
er and capacity of the buckets, Useful efliect of the water wheel, 
Overshot water wheels, Water wheels with radial floats. Water Wheel 
with curveil buckets. Turbines. Remarks on Machine Tools, 


The Study op Machinery, and Sketching. — Various applioatlont 
ftnd combioations : The Sketching of Machinery, Plates XXXV. and 
XXXVL DrUling Machine; Motive Machines; Water wheels, Con- 
■tniction and setting up of water wheels, Delineation of water wheels, 
Design for a water wheel, Sketch of a water wheel ; Overshot Water 
Wieels. Water Pumps, Plate XXXVII. Steam Motitrs; High-pressure 
expansive steam engine, Plates XXXVIII., XXXIX. and XL. Details 
^ Constrtiction ; Movements of the IHstribtition and Expansion Valves / 
Rules and Practical Data — Steam engines : Low-pressure condensing 
engines without expansion valve. Diameter of piston, Velocities. 
Steam pipes and passages. Air-pump and condenser. Cold-water and 
feed-pumps. High-pressure Expansive engines. Medium pressure con- 
densing ana expansive steam engine, Conical pendulum or centrifugal 

Oblique Projections.— Application of rules to the delineation of 
an oscillating cylinder, Plate ALL 
* Parallel PERSPECTiVE.—Principles and applications, Plate XLIL 

True Perspective.— Elementary principles, Plate XLIII. Appli- 
cations—flour mill dnven by belts. Plates XLI v. and XLV. Descrip-* 
tion of the mill, Representation of the mill in perspective, Notes of 
recent improvements in flour mills, Schiele's mill, Mullin's " ring mill- 
stone," Barnett*s millstone, Hastie's arrangement for driving mills, 
Currie's improvements in mfUstones ; Rules and Practical Data—'WoTk 
performed by various machines, Flour mills, Saw mills, Veneer-sawing 
machines. Circular saws. 

Examples or Finished Draitinos or Machinery.— Plate A, 
Balance water-meter; Plate B, Engineer's shaping machine; Plate 
C D E, Express locomotive engine ; Plate F., Wood planing machine ; 
Plate G, Washing machine for piece rood.* ; Plate H, power loom J 
Plate I, Duplex steam l>oiler ; Plate J, DlrectrActing marine engines. 

Drawing Instruments. 

Blinn. A Practical Workshop Companion 
for Tin, Slieet-Iron, and Copper-Plate 

Containing Rules for Describing varions kinds ot Patterns 
used hy Tin, Sheet-Iron, and Copper-Plate Workers ; 
Practical Geometrj; Mensuration of Surfaces and Solids ; 
Tables of the Weights of Metals, Lead Pipe, etc. ; Tables 
of Areas and Circumferences of Circles ; Japans, Varnishes, 
Lackers, Cements, Compositions, etc. etc. By Leroy J. 
Blinn. With numerous Illustrations. 12mo ^..$2.50 

Beans. A Treatise on Railroad Curves and the 
Location of Railroads. 

By E. W. Beans, C. E. 12mo. (In press.) 

Bishop. A History of American Manufactures, 

From 1608 to 1860; exhibiting the Origin and Growth 
of the Principal Mechanic Arts and Manufactures, from 
the Earliest Colonial Period to the Present Time ; with a 



Notice of the Important Inventions, Tariffs, and the Re- 
sults of each Decennial Census. Bjr J. Leander Bishop, 
M. Df : to which is added I^otes on the Principal Manu- 
facturing Centres and Remarkable Manufactori»)S. By 
Edward Young and Edwin T. Freedley. In two vols., 
8vo $6.00 

^Bookbindmg : A Manual of the Art of Book 

Containing full instructions in the different branches of 
Forwarding, Gilding and Finishing. Also, the Art of 
Marbling Book-edges and Paper. By James B. r^icholson. 
Illustrated 12mo., cloth, $2.25 

CONTENTS.— Sketch of the Progress of Bookbinding, Sheet- 
worlc, Forwarding the Edges. Marbling, Gilding the Edges, Covering, 
Half Binding, Blank Binding, Boarding, Cloth-work, Ornamental Art, 
Finishing. Taste and Design, Styles, Gilding, Illuminate<l Binding. 
Blind Tooling, Antique, Coloring, Marbling, Uniform Colors, Gold 
Marbling, Landscapes, etc.. Inlaid Ornaments, Harmony of Colors. 
Pasting Down, etc., Stamp or Press-work, Restoring the Bindings of 
Old Books, Supplying imperfections in Old Books, Hints to Book Col- 
lectors, Technical Lessons. 

Booth and Morfit. The Encyclopedia of 
Cheniislry, Practical and Theoretical! 

Embracing its application to the Arts, Metallurgy, Mine- 
ralogy, Geology, Medicine, and Pharmacy, By James C. 
Booth, Melter and Refiner in the United States Mint ; 
Professor of Applied Chemistry in the Franklin Institute, 
etc.; assisted by Campbell Morpit, author of ** Chemical 
Manipulations,'* etc. 7th Edition. Complete in one 
Tolume, royal octavo, 978 pages, with numerous wood 
cuts and other illustrations, $5.00 

From the very large number of articles in this volume, it is entirely 
Impossible to give a list of the Contents, but attention may be called 
to some among the more elaborate, such at AflBnity, Alcoholometry, 
Ammon&um, Analysis, Antimony, Arseni(^ Blowpipes. Cyanc^en, Dis- 
tillation, Electricity, Ethyl, Fermentation, Iron, Lead and Water. 

Brewer; (The Complete Practical.) 

Or Plain, Concise, and Accurate Instmctions in the Art 
of Brewing Beer, Ale, Porter etc., etc., and the Process 
of Making all the Small Beers. By M. Lafatbttb Btrk, 

M. D. With Illustrations. 12mo $r.26 

**Manv an old brewer will find in this book valuable hinta and tUff- 


Mstioni irorthy of conBideration, and the noirice can post himBelf up 
lu LiB trade in all Its parts."— iir^toan. 

Builder's Pocket Companion: 

Containing the Elements of Building, Survey ing, and 
Architecture ; with Practical Rules and Instructions con- 
nected with the subject. By A. C. Smea-tox, Civil Engi- 
neer, etc. In one volume, 12n>o., $1.25 

CONTIjNTS. — The Builder, Carpenter, Joiner, Mason, Plasterer, 
Plumber, Painter, Smith, Practical Geometry, Surveyor, Cohesive 
Strength of Bodies, Architect. 

** It gives, ID a small space, the most thorough directions to the 
builder, from the laying of a brick, or the felling of a tree, up to the 
most elaborate production of ornamental architecture. It is scientific, 
without being obscure and unintelligible ; and every house-carpenter, 
mabter, journeyman, or apprentice, should have a copy at hand 
%lw&ya."— Evening Builetin. 

Byrne. The Handbook for the Artisan, Me- 
chanic, and Engineer, 

Containing Instructions in Grinding and Sharpening of 
Cutting Tools, Figuration of Materials by Abrasion, Lapi- 
dary Work, Gem and Glass Engraving, Varnishing and 
Lackerin^r, Abrasive Processes, etc., etc. By Oliver 
Byrne. Illustrated with 11 large plates and 185 cuts. 
8vo., cloth, $5.00 

OONTliNTS.~Grinding Cutting Tools on the Ordinary Grind- 
stone; Sharpening Cutting Tools on the Oilstone; Setting Razors | 
Sharpening Cutting Tools with Artificial Grinders ; Production of Plane 
Surfaces by Abrasion ; Production of Cylindrical Surfaces by Abra- 
sion ; Production of Conical Surfaces by Abrasion ; Production of 
Spherical Surfaces by Abrasion; Glass Cutting; Lapidary Work; 
Setting, Cutting, and Polishing Flat and Rounded Works; Cutting 
Faucets ; Lapidary Apparatus for Amateurs ; Gem and Glass Engrav- 
ing; Seal and Gem Engraving; Cameo Cutting; Glass Engraving, 
Varnishiog, and Lackering; General Remarks upon Abrapive Pro- 
cesses ; Dictionary of Apparatus ; Materials and Processes for Grinding 
•ad Polishing commonly employed in the Mechanical and Useful Arts. 


The Practical Melal- worker's Assist- 


For Tin-plate Workers, Braziers, Coppersmiths, Zinc- 
plate Ornrmenters and Workers, Wire Workers, White- 
smiths, Blacksmiths, Bell Hangers, Jewellers, Silver and 
Gold Smiths, Electrotypers, and all other Workers in 
Alloys and Metals. Edited hj Olivbb Byrne. Complete 
ih one volame, octavo, 1^7.00 

It treats ^f Casting, Founding, and Forging; of Tongs and other 
Tools; IMgrees of Heat and Management of Fires; Welding of 


Heftdlof and Swage Tools ; of Punches and Anvils ; of Hardening a»4 
Tempering; of Alalleable Iron Castings, Case Hardening, WroagLt 
and Cast Iron; ttie Management and Manipulation of Metals and 
Alloys, Melting and Mi)dng ; the Management of Furnaces, Casting 
and Founding with Metallic Moulds, Joining and Working Sheet Metal ; 
Peculiarities of the different Tools employed ; Processes dependent on 
the ductility of MeUIs ; Wire Drawing, Drawing Metal Tubes, Solder- 
ing ; The use of the Btowpipe, and every other known Metal Worker's 

Byrne. The Praetical Model CaleobtM*, 

For the EDgineer, Machinist, Manafactarer of Engine 
Work, Naval Architect, Miner, and Millwright. B7 
Olivbb Btbkb, Compiler and Editor of the Dictionary of 
Machines, Mechanics, Engine Work and Engineering, and 
Author of various Mathematical and Mechanical Works. 
Illustrated bj numerous engravings. Complete in one 
large volume, octavo, of nearly six hundred pages,.. $4.50 
The principal objects of this work are : to establish rooilel calcula- 
tions to guide practical men and students ; to illustrate every practical 
rule and principle by numerical calculations, systematically arranged ; 
to give information and data indispensable to those for whom it 4a. in- 
tended, thus surpassing in value any other book of its character ; to 
economize the labor of the practical man, and to render his every-day 
e-^lculations easy and comprehensive. It will be found to be one of 
the moat complete and valuable practical books ever published. 

Cabinetmaker's and Upholsterer's Companion, 

Comprising the Rudiments and Principles of Cabinet., 
making and Upholstery, with Familiar Instructions, il- 
lustrated by Examples for attaining a proficiency in the 
Art of Drawing, as applicable to Cabinet Work ; the 
processes of Veneering, Inlaying, and Buhl Work ; the 
Art of Dyeing and Staining Wood, Bone, Tortoise Shell, 
etc. Directions for Lackering, Japanning, and Varnish- 
ing ; to make French Polish ; to prepare the best Glues, 
Cements, and Compositions, and a number of Receipts 
particularly useful for Workmen generally. By J. Stokes. 

In one volume, 12mo. With Illustrations, $1.25 

" A large amount of practical information, of grejit service to all 
ooncerneu in those branches of business." 

Campin. A Practical Treatise on Mechanical 

comprising Metallurgy, Moulding, Casting, Forging, 
Tools, Workshop Machinery, Mechanical Manipulation, 
Manufacture of Steam Engines, etc. etc. With an Appen- 
dix on the Analysis of Iron and Iron Ores. By Francis 
Campin, C. E. To which are added, Observations on the 


Construction of Steam Boilers and remarks upon Furnaoet 
used for Smoke Prevention ; with a Chapter on Explosions. 
By R Armstrong, C. E., and John Bourne. Rules for CaU 
culating the Change Wheels for Screws on a TurniDgLathOj 
and for a Wheel-cutting Machine. By J. La Nicca. Man- 
agement of Steel, including Forging, Hardening, Tei^per- 
ing. Annealing, Shrinking, and Expansion. And the Case- 
hardening of Iron. By G. Ede. 8vo. Illustrated with 29 
plates and 100 wood engravings. 8vo $ti.O() 

CoIburD. The Locomotive Engine ; 

Including a Description of its Structure, Rules for Esti- 
mating its Capahilities, and Practical Observations on its 
Construction and Management. By Zbbah Colbukn. Il- 
lustrated. A new edition. 12mo, $1.25 

*' It is the most practical and generally useful work on the Steam 
Engine that we have seen."— £o#toa Travtler." 

Daguerreolypist and Photographer's Companion. 

12mo., cloth, $1.26 

Distiller (The Complete Practical). 

By M. Lapatettb Btrit, M.D. With Illustrations. 12mo. 


" So simplified, that it is adapted not onlv to the use of extensive 
Distillers, but for every fafmer, or others who may want to engage la 
Distilling."— jBanmr t/ tlie Union. 

Dussauce. Practical Treatise 

On the Fabrication op Matches, Gun Cotton, and Fulmi- 
nating Powders. By Prof. H. Dussauce. 12mo.,....$3.00 

CONTENTS.— PAo*pAorM*. — History of Phosphorus; Physical 
Properties ; Chemical Properties ; Natural State ; Preparation ol 
White Phosphorus ; Amorphous Phosphorus, and Benoxide of Lead. 
lf<#/c/»«*.— Preparation of Wooden Matches ; Matches inflammable by 
rubbing, without noise ; Common Lucifer Matches: Matches without 
Phosphorus ; Candle Matches ; Matches with Amorphous Phospho- 
rus ; Matches and Rubbers without Phosphorus. Gun Cotton, — Proper* 
ties ; Preparation ; Paper Powder ; use of Cotton and Paper Powdert 
for Fulminating Primers, etc.j Preparation of Fulminating Primers, 
etc., etc 

Dussaace. Chemical Receipt Book: 

A General Formulary for the Fabrication of Leading 
Chemicals, and their Application to the Arts, Mannfac- 
tures, Metallurgy, and Agricuiture. By Prof. H. Das* 
sauce, (/n press,) 



Baifi The American Cotton Spinner^ and 
' Manager's and Carder's Guide: 

A Practical Treatise on Cotton Spinning ; giving the Di- 
mensions and Speed of Machinery, Draught and Twist 
Calculations, etc.; with Notices of recent Improvements : 
together with Rules and Examples for making changes 
in the sizes and numbers of Roving and Yarn. Com- 
pile 1 from the papers of the late Robert H. Baird. 
12mo $1.26 

Capron De Dole. Dussance. Blues and Car* 
mines of Indigo: 

A Practical Treatise on the Fabrication of every Cgmmer 
cial Product derived from Indigo. By Felicien Capron 
de Dole. Translated, with Important additions, by Pro- 
fessor H. Dussauce. 12mo $2.50 

Chemistry Applied to Dyeing. 

By James' Napier, p. C. S. Illustrated. 12mo $2.50 

CONTENTS.— (?cn«raZ Properties of Jfa«er.— Heat, Light, Ele- 
ments of Matter, Chemical Affinity. Non-Metallic Substances. — Oxygen, 
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Sulphur, Selenium, Phosphorus, lodinei 
Bromine, Fluorine, Silicum, Boron. Carbon. Metallic SuJbstanees. — 
General Properties of Metals, Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Soap, 
Barium. Strontium, Calcium, Magnesium, Alminum, Manganese. Iron, 
Cobalt, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Bismuth, Tin, Titanium, 
Chromium, Vanadium, Tungstenum or Wolfram, Molybdenum, Tella- 
riu'm, Arsenic. Antimony. Uranium, Cerium, Mercury. Silver, Goid, 
Platinum, Palladium, Iridium, Osmium, Rhodium, Lanthanium. M<n^ 
dants.—BMA Spirits, Barwood Spirits, Plumb Spirits, Yellow Spirits, 
Nitrate of Iron, Acetate of Alumina, Black Iron Liquor, Iron and Tin 
for Royal Blues, Acetate of Copper. Vegetable Matters used in Dyeing.-' 
Galls, Sumach, Catechu, Indigo, Logwood, Brazil-woods, Sandal-wood. 
Barwood, Camwood, Fustic, Young Fustic, Bark or Quercitron, Fla- 
vine, Weld or Wold, Turmeric, Persian Berries, Samower, Madder, 
Munjeet, Annota, Alkanet Root, Archil. Proposed New Vegetable 
i)^etf.— Sooranjee, Carajuru, Wong^shy, Aloes, Pittaoal, Barbary Root, 
Animal Matters used in Dyeing.— Cochine&\, Lake or Lao, Kerms. 

This will be found one of the most valuable books on the subject of 
dyeing, ever published in this country. 

Dussauce. Treatise on the Coloring Matters 
Derived from Coal Tar; 

Their Practical Application in Djeing Cotton, WooL and 


Silk ; the Prineiples of the Art of Dyeing and of the Dis- 
tillation of Coal Tar ; with a Description of the most Im- 
portant New Dyes now in nse. By Professor H. Dns- 
saace, Chemist. 12mo .*. $2.50 

CONTENTS.— Historical Notice of the Art of Dyeing— Chemical 
Principles of the Art of Dyeing— Preliminary Preparation of StutfB— 
Mordants — Dyeing— On the Ck>Toring Matters produced by Coal Tar — 
' Distillation of Coal Tar— History of Aniline— Properties of ▲niline— 
Preparation of Aniline directly from Coal Tar— Artificial Preparation 
of Aniline — Preparation of Benzole— Properties of Benzole — Prepara- 
tion of Nltro-Benzole— Transformation of Nltro-Benzole Into Aniline, 
by means of Sulphide of Ammonium ; by Nascent Hydrogen ; by Ace- 
tate of Iron ; and by Arsenlte of Potash— Properties of the Bi-Nitro- 
Benzole— Anlline-^urple— Vlollne — Roselne — Emeraldlne — Bleu de 
Paris— Futschlne, or Magenta— Coloring Matters obtained by other 
bases from Coal Tar— Nltroso-Phenyllne— Di Nltro-Anlllne— Nltro- 
Phenyllne — Picrio Acid— Rosolio Acid— Qulnoltne — Napthaline Colors 
— Chloroxynaphthalic and Perchloroxynapthalio Acids- Carmlnaph- 
tha— Nlnaphthalamlne — Nltrosonaphthallne — Naphthameln — Tar Red 
—Azullne— Application of Coal Tar Colors to the Art of Dyeing and 
Calico Printing— Action of Light on Coloring Matters from Coal Tar 
—Latest Improvements in the Art of Dyeing— Chrysammlc Acid— Mo- 
lybdlc and Flcrlc Acids— Extract of Madder— Theory of the Fixation 
of Coloring Matters In Dyeing and Printing— Principles of the Action 
of the most Important Mordants— Aluminous Mordants— Ferruginous 
Mordants— Stanniferous Mordants — Artificial Alizarin— Metallic Hy- 
posulphites as Mordants— Over's Soap — Preparation of Indigo for Dye- 
ing and printing— Relative value of Indigo — Chinese Green Murexlde. 

Dyer and ColoMnaker's Companion: 

Containing upwards of two hundred Receipts for making 
Colors, on the most approved principles, for all the 
various styles and fabrics now in existence ; with the 
Scouring Process, and plain Dir^ections for Preparing, 
Washing-off, and Finishing the Goods. Second edition. 
In one volume, 12mo $1.25 

French Dyer, (The) : 

Comprising the Art of Dyeing in Woolen, Silk, Cotton, 
etc., etc. By M. M. Riflfault, Vernaud, De Fontenelle, 
Thillaye, and Mallepeyre. {In press.) 

Love. The Art of Dyeing, Cleaning, Sconring, 
and Finishing, 

On the Most Approved English and French Methods; 
being Practical Instructions in Dyeing Silks, Woolens 
and Cottons, Feathers, Chips, Straw, eto.^ Scouring and 
Cleaning Bed and Window Curtains, Carpets, Rugs, etc., 
French and English Cleaning, any Color or Fabric of 
Silk, Satin, or Damask. By Thomas Love, a working 

Dyer and Scourer. In one volume, 12mo $3.00 



O'Neill. Chemistry of Calico Printing, Dye« 
ing, and Bleacliing ; 

Inclading Silken, Woolen, and Mixed Goods ; Practical 
and TheoreticaL By Charles O'Neill. (In press.) 

O'Neill. A Dictionary of Calieo Printing and 

By Charles 0»NeiU. (In press.) 

Scott. Tlie Practical Cotton-spinner and Man* 
nfacturer ; 

Ob, Thb Makageb Aim OTBRLooKBR's.CoMPANioir. Thls 
work contains a Comprehensive System of Calculations 
for Mill Gearing and Machinery, from the first Moving 
Power, through the different processes of Carding, Draw- 
ing, Slabbing, Roving, Spinning, and Weaving, aidapted 
to American Machinery, Practice and Usages. Compen- 
dious Tables of Yams and Reeds are added. . Illustrated 
by large Working-Drawings of the most approved Ameri- 
can Cotton Machinery. Complete in one volume, oc- 
' tavo $5.00 

This edition of Scott's Cotton-Spinner, by Oliver Byrne, is designed 
for the American Operative. It will be found intensely practical, and 
will be'*of the greatest possible value to the Manager, Overseer, and 

Sellers. The ColoMnixer. 

By John Sellers, an Experienced Practical Workman. 
To which is added a Catechism of Chbmistbt. In one 
Tolume, 12mo .....$2.50 

Smith. The Dyer's hslructor; 

Comprising Practical Instructions in the Art of' Dyeing 
Silk, Cotton, Wool and Worsted, and Woolen Goods, as 
Single and Two-colored Damasks, Moreens, Camlets, 
Lastings, Shot Cobonrgs, Silk Striped Orleans, Plain Or- 
leans, from White and Colored Warps, Merinos, Woolens, 
Yarns, etc; containing nearly eight hundred Receipts. 
To which is added a Treatise on the Art of Padding, and 
the Printing of Silk Warps, Skeins and Handkerchiefs, 
and the various Mordants and Colors for the different 


ttjies of such work. By David Smith, Pattern Dyer. 
A new edition, in one volume, 12mo $3.00 

CONTENTS.— Wool Dyeing, 60 receipts— Cotton Dyeing, 68 re- 
eeipti— Silk Dyeing, 60 receipts— Woolen Yarn Dyeing, 69 receipts- 
Worsted Yarn Dyeing, 61 receijits— Woolen Dyeing, 62 receipts— Da- 
mask D)'eing, 40 receipts — Moreen EKreing, 38 receipts— Two-Colored 
Damask Dyeing, 21 receipts — Camlet Dyeing, 23 receipts— Lasting Dye- 
ing, 23 receipts— Shot Cobourg Dyeing. 18 receipts— Silk Striped Or- 
leans, from Black, White, and Coloreu Warps, 23 receipts— Colored 
Orleans, from Black Warps, 16 receipts — Colored Orleans and Co- 
boiirgs, from White Warps, 27 receipts — Colored Merinos, 4! receipts 
—Woolen Shawl Dyeing. 16 receipts— Padding, 42 receipts— Silk Warp, 
Skein, and Handkerchief Printing, 62 receipts— Nature and Use of Dye- 
wares, including AJum, Annotta, Archil, Ammonia, Argol, Super 
Argol, Camwood, Catechu, Cochineal, Chrome, or Bichromate of. Pot- 
ash, Cudbear, Chemic, or Sulphate of Indigo. French Berry, or Persian 
Berry, Fustic or Young Fustic, Galls, Indigo, Kermes or Lac Dye, 
Logwood, Madder, Nitric Acid or Aqua Forttp, Nitrates, Oxalic Tin, 
Peachwood, Prussiate of Potash, Quercitron Bark, Safflower, Saun- 
4ers or Re<l Sandal, Sapan Wood, Sumach, Turmeric, Examination of 
Water by Tests, etc., etc. 

[Jlrich. Dussauce. A Complete Treatise 

On thb Abt op Dteiko Cotton and Wool, as practised I3I 
Paris, Rouen, Mclhodsb and Germany. From the French 
of M. Louis Ulrich, a Practical Djer in the principal 
Manufactories of Paris, Rouen, Mulhouse, etc., etc. ; to 
which are added the most important Receipts for Dyeing 
Wool, as practised in the Manufacture Imperiale des 
Gobelins, Paris. By Professor H. Dussauce. 12m o«. $3 00 

Rouen Dyes, 106 Receipts. 

Alsace " 235 " 

German " 109 « 

Mulhouse" 72 « 

Parisian " 66 " 

Gobelins " 100 « 
la all nearly 700 Receipts. 

Easton. A Practical Treatise on Street or 
Horse»power Railways ; 

Their Location, Construction and Management; with 
general Plans and Rules for their Organization and Ope- 
ration ; together with Examinations as to their Compara* 



tire Advantages over the Omnibus STStem, and Inquiriet 
as to their Value for Investment ; including Copies of 
Municipal Ordinances relating thereto. By Alexander 
Easton, C. £. Illustrated by twentj-three plates, 8vo., 
cloth $2.00 

ExamiDations of Drugs, Medicines, Chemicais, 

As to their Purity and Adulterations. By G. H. Peirce, 
M. D. 12mo., cloth $2.50 

Fisher's Photogenic Manipolation. 

16mo.y cloth «•«.«. i 62 

Gas and Ventilation; 

A Practical Treatise on (Ha cnd Ventilation. By B. B 
Perkins. 12mo., cloth J$1.00 

Gilbart. A Practical Treatise on Banking. 

By James William Gilbart, F. R. 8. A new enlarged and 
improved edition. Sdited by J. Smith Homans, editor 
of ** Banker's Magazine." To which is added ** Money," 
by H. C. Carey. 8vo ...$3.50 

Gregory's Mathematics for Practical Men; 

Adapted to the Pursuits of Surveyors, Architects, Me- 
chanics and Civil Engineers. 8vo., plates, cloth...$2.25 

Qardwich. A Manual of Photographic Chem- 
istry ; 

Including the practice of the Collodion Process. By J. 
F. Hardwich. {In press,) 

Hay. The Interior Decorator; 

The Laws of Harmonious Coloring adapted to Interior 
Decorations ; with a Practical Treatise on House Paint- 
ing. By D. R. Hay, House Painter and Decorator. Il- 
lustrated by a Diagram of the Primary, Secondary and 
Tertiary Colors. 12mo. (In press,) 


Inventor's Gnide — Patent Office and Patent 
Laws ! 

Or, a Guide to Inventors, and a Book of Reference for 
Jadges, Lawyers, Magistrates, and others. By J. G. 
Moore. 12mo., cloth $1.25 

Jervis. RaUway Property. A Treatise 

On thb Cokstructiow and Manaobment op Railways ; de- 
signed to afford asefal knowledge, in the popular style, 
to the holders of this class of property ; as well as Rail- 
way Managers, Officers and Agents. By John B. Jervis, 
late Chief Engineer of the Hudson River Railroad, Cro- 
ton Aqueduct, etc. One volume, 12mo., cloth $2.00 

CONTENTS. — Preface — Introduction. ConsiructUm. — Intpoduo- 
tory— Land and Land Damages — Location of Line — Method of Business 
—Grading—Bridges and Culverts— Road Crossings— Ballasting Track- 
Cross Sleepers— Chairs and Spikes— Rails— Station Buildings— Loco- 
motives, Coaches and Cars. Operating. — Introductory— Freight— Pas- 
sengers-Engine Drivers— Repairs to Track — Repairs of Machinery- 
Civil Engineer— Superintendent— Supplies of Material— Receipts— Dis- 
bursements — Statistics — Running Trains — Competition — Financial 
Management— General Remarks. 

Johnson. The Coal Trade of British America; 

With Researches on the Characters and Practical Values 
of American and Foreign Coals. By Walter R. Johnson, 
Civil and Mining Engineer and Chemist. 8vo $2.00 

This volume contains the results of the experiments made for the 
Navy Department, upon which their Coal contracts are now baaed. ^ 

Johnston. Instructions for the Analysis of 
Soils, Limestones and Manures. - 

By J. F. W. Johnston. 12mo 38 

Larkin. The Practical Brass and Iron Found* 
er's Guide; 

A Concise Treatise on the Art of Brass Founding, MonUl- 
ing, etc. By James Larkin. 12mo., cloth $1.25 

Leslie's (Miss) Complete Cookery; 

Directions for Gookery in its Various Branches.* By Mi68 
Leslie. 58th thousand. Thoroughly revised ; with the 
addition of New Receipts. In one volume, 12mo., half 

bound, or in sheep $1.25 



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Leslie's (Miss) Two Hundred Receipts in 
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Cloth, 12mo 25 

Lieber. Assayer's Guide; 

Or, Practical Directions to Assajers, Miners ^nd Smelters, 
for the Tests and Assays, bj Heat and hy Wet Processes, 
of the Ores of all the principal Metals, and of Gold and 
Silver Coins and AUojs. By Oscar M. Lieber, late Geolo- 
gist to the State of Mississippi. 12mo. With illustra- 
tions ." $1.25 

'*Ainonff the inditpeniable works for this purpose, is this little 
fuide."— ilrfizan. 

Lowig. Principles of Organic and Physiologi- 
cal Chemistry. 

By Dr. Carl Lowig, Doctor of Medicine and Philosophy; 
Ordinary Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
Ziirich ; Author of *' Chemie des Organischen Verbindun 
gen.** Translated by Daniel Breed, M. D., of the U. S. 
i*atent Office ; late of the Laboratory of Liebig and Low^g. 
8vo.^ sheep $3.50 

Marble Worker's Manual; 

Containing Practical Information respecting Marbles in 
general, their Cutting, Working and Polishing, Veneer- 
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Miles. A Plain Treatise on Horse-shoeing. 

With Illustrations. By William Miles, Author of "The 
Horse's Foot. * ' $1.00 



Main & Brown. The Marine ^team<Engine. 

Bj Thomas J. Main, F.R. Ast. S. Mathematical Professor 
at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, and Thomas 
Brown, Assoc. Inst. C. E. Chief Engineer R. N. attached 
to the Royal Naval College. Authors of ** Question^ Con- 
nected with the Marine Steam-Engine,'' and the ** Indi- 
cator and Dynamometer. ' ' With Numerous Illustrations. 

In one Volume, 8vo $5.00 

CONTENTS.— Introductory Chapter, The Boiler, The Engine, Get- 
ting up Steam, Duties to Machinery when under Steam, Duties to En- 
gine, &c., on arriving in harbor, MiBceilaneous, Appendix. 

Main & Brown. Questions on Subjects Con* 
nected with tlie Majine*Steam Engine, 

And Examination Papers ; with Hints for their Solution. 
By Thomas J. Main, Professor of Mathematics Royal Naval 
College, and Thomas Brown, Chief Engineer R. N. 12mo., 
cloth .....$1.60 

Main & Brown. The Indicator and Dynamo- 

With their Practical Applications to the Steam Engine. 
By Thomas J. Main and Thomas Brown. With Illustra- 
tions. 8vo., cloth $1.50 

Morfit. A Treatise on Chemistry 

Applied to the Manufacture of Soap and Candles ; being 
a Thorough Exposition, in all their Minutise, of the prin- 
ciples and Practice of the Trade, based upon the most 
recent Discoveries in Science and Art. By Campbell 
Morfit, Professor of Analytical and Applied Chemistry in 
the University of Maryland. A new and improved edi- 
tion. Illustrated with 260 Engravings on Wood. Com- 
plete in one volume, large Svo $7.50 

CONTBITTS.— CHAPTER I. The History of the Art and its Rela- 
tions to Science— II. Chemical Combination— III. Allcalies and Alka- 
line Earths— IV. Alkallmentary— V. Acids— VI. Origin and Composi- 
tion of Fatty Matters— VII. Saponifiable Fats— Vegetable Fats— Aal- 
mal Fats— Waxes— VIII. Action of Heat and Mineral Acids of Fatty 
Matters— IX. Volatile or Essential Oils, and Resins— X. The Proxi- 
mate Principles of Fats— Their Composition and Properties— Basic 
Constituents of Fats— XI. Theory of Saponification- XII. Utensils 
Requisite for a Soap Factory— XIII. Preparatory Manipulations in 
the Process of Making Soap— Preparation of the Lyes— XIV. Hard 


Softpi— XV. Soft 8oApf"-XVL Soap* by the Cold Process— XVII. Sill- 
cuted Soaps—XVIII. Toilet Soaps— XIX. Patent Soaps— XX. Fraud 
and Adulterations in the Manufacture of Soap— XXI. Candles— XXIL 
Illumination— XXIII. PhUosophy of Flame— XXIV. Raw Material 
for Candles— Purification and Bleaching of Suet— XX V. Wicks— XX VI. 
Dipped Candles— XXVII. Moulded Candles— XXVIII. Stearin Candles 
—XXIX. Stearic Acid Candles— " Star** or '• Adamantine'* Candles— 
Saponification by Lime — Saponification by Lime and Sulphurous Acid 
—Saponification by Sulphuric Acid— Saponification by the combined 
^action of Heat, Pressure and Steam- XXX. Spermaceti Candles— 
XXXL Wax Candles— XXXn. Composite Candles— XX XIIL Paraffin 
—XXXIV. Patent Candlea—XXXV. Hydrometers and Thermometers. 

Mortimer. Pyrotechnist's Companion; 

Or, a Familiar System of Fire-works. By G. W. Morti- 
mer. Illustrated by numerous Engravings. 12mo$1.25 

Napier. Manual of £lcctro«Metailurgy; 

Including the Application of the Art to Manufacturing 
Processes. By James Napier. From the second London 
edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrated by Engrav- 
ings. In one volume, 12mo $1.50 

Napier's Electro-Metallurgy is generally regarded as the very best 
Practical Treatise on the Subject in the English Language. 

CONTENTS.— History of the Art of Electro-Metallurgy— Descrip- 
tion of Galvanic Batteries, and their respective Peculiarities— Elec- 
trotype Processes — Miscellaneous Applications of the Process of Coat- 
ing with Copper— Bronzing — Decomposition of Metals upon one 
another— Electro-Plating— Electro-Gilding— Results of Experiments 
on the Deposition of other Metals as Coatings, Theoretical Observa- 

Norris's Hand-book for Locomotive Engineers 
and Machinists; 

Comprising the Calculations for Constructing Locomo- 
tives, Manner of setting Valves, etc., etc. By Septimus 
Norris, Civil and Mechanical Engineer. In one volume. 
12mo., with Illustrations $2.00 

*' With pleasure do we meet with such a work as Messrs. Norrii 
and Baird nave given UB."—A^izan, 

»*In this work he has given us what are called *the secrets of the 
business,' in the rules to construct looomotiyes, in order that the mil- 
lion should be learned in all thiagB,*^—ScierUific American. 

, Nystrom. A Treatise on Screw«Propellers and 
their Steam-Engines; 

With Practical Rules and Examples by which to Calcu- 
late and Construct the same for any description of Ves- 
sels. By J. W. Nystrom. Illustrated by over thirty 
lar^^e Working Drawings. In one volume, octavo... $6. 00 


Overman. The Manufacture of Iron in all its 
Various Branches; 

To which is added an Essay on the Manufacture of Steel. 
By Frederick Overman, Mining Engineer. With one 
hundred and fifty Wood Engravings. Third edition. In 
one volume, octavo, five hundred pages $7.50 

*' We hftye now to announce the appearance of another valuable 
work on the subject, which, In our humble opinion, supplies any deft- 
eiencj' which late improvements and discoveries may have caused, 
irom the lapse of time since the date of * Mushet' and * Schrlvenor.' 
It is the production of one of our Trans- Atlantic brethren, Mr. Fred- 
erick Overman, Mining Engineer ; and we do not hesitate to set it 
Cown as a work of great im])ortance to all connected with the iron in- 
terests : one which, while it is sufficiently technological fully to ex- 

J>lain chemical analysis, and the various phenomena of iron under 
litferent circumstances, to the satisfaction of the most fastidious, is 
written in that clear and comprehensive style as to be available to the 
capacity of the humblest mind, and consequently will be of much ad- 
vantage to those works where the proprietors may see the desirability 
of placing it in the hands of their operatives."— London Mining 

Fainter, Gilder and Yaraisher's Companion; 

Containing Rules and Regulations in every thing relating 
to the Arts of Painting, Gilding, Varnishing and Glass 
Staining ; with numerous useful and valuable Receipts ; 
Tests for the detection of Adulterations in Oils and 
Colors ; and a statement of the Diseases and Accidents to 
which Painters, Gilders and Varnishers are particularly 
liable, with the simplest methods of Prevention and 
Remedy. Eighth edition. To which are added Complete 
Instructions in Graining, Marbling, Sign Writing, and 
Gilding on Glass. 12mo., cloth $1.25 

Paper-Hanger's (The) Companion; 

In which the Practical Operations of the Trade are sys- 
tematically laid down ; with copious Directions Prepara- 
tory to Papering ; Preventions against the effect of Damp 
in Walls ; the various Cements and Pastes adapted to 
^ the several purposes of the Trade ; Observations and Di- 
rections for the Panelling and Ornamenting of Rooms, 
etc., etc. .By James Arrowsmith. In one volume 
12mO $1.25 

Praclical {The> Surveyor's Guide ; 

Containing the necessary information to make any per 
son of common capacity a finished Land Survevor, with- 



out the aid of a Teacher. By Andrew Duncan, Land 
Surveyor and Civil Engineer. 12mo $1.25 

HftviDg had an experience as a Practical Surveyor, etc., of thirty 
Tears, it is believed that the author of this volume possesses a thorough 
knowledge of the wants of the profession ; and never having met with 
any work sufficiently concise and instructive in the several details 
necessary for the proper qualification of the Surveyor, it has been his 
object to supply that want. Among other important matters in the 
book, will be found the following : 

Instructions in levelling and profiling, with a new and speedy plan 
of setting grades on rail and plank roads^the method ot inflecting 
curves — ^the description and design of a new instrument, whereby dis- 
tances are found at once, without any calculation — a new method of 
surveying anv tract of land by measuring one line through it— a geo- 
metrical metfiod of correcting surveys taken with the compass, to fit 
them for calculation — a short method of finding the angles from the 
courses, and vice vena— the method of surveying with the comrass 
through any mine or iron works, and to correct the deflections of the 
needle by attraction— description of an instrument by the help of 
which any one may measure a map by inspection, without calculation 
—a new and short method of calculation, wherein fewer figures are 
used— the method of correcting the diurnal variation of the needle 
—various methods of plotting and eml>ellishing maps— the. most cor- 
rect method of laying off plots with the pole, etc.— description of a 
new compass contrived by the author, etc., etc. 

Railroad Engineer's Pocket Companion for the 

B/ W. Griswold. 12mo., tncks $1.25 

Rcgnault. Elements of Chemistry. 

By M. V. Regiiault. Translated from the French hy T. 
Forrest Betton, M.D., and edited, with notes, by James 
C. Booth, Melter and Refiner U. S. Mint, and William L. 
Faber, Metallurgist and Mining Engineer. Illustrated by 
nearly 700 wood engravings. Comprising nearly 1,500 
pages. In two volumes, 8vo., cloth $10 00 

Rural Chemistry; 

An Elementary Introduction to the Study of the Science, 
in its relation to Agriculture and the Arts of Life. Ky 
Edward Solly, Professor of Chemistry in the Horticul- 
tural Society of London. From the third improved Lon- 
don edition. 12mo $1.50 

Shunk. A Practical Treatise 

On Railway Curves, and Location for Young Engineers. 
By V/m. F. Shunk, Civil Engineer. * 12mo $1.06 

Strength and Other Properties of Metals; 

Kioports of Experiments on the Strength and other Pro- 


parties of Metals for Cannon. With a Description of the 
Machines for Testing Metals^ and of the Classification of 
Cannon in service. By Officers of the Ordnance Depart- 
ment U. S. ^rmy. By authority of the Secretary of 
War* Illustratdd by 25 large steel plates. In one vol- 
ume, qaarto $10.01 

The best Treatise on Cast-iron extant. 

Tables Showing the Weight 

Op Round, Squarb and Flat Bab Iron, Steel, etc., by 
Measarement. Cloth 50 

Tavlor. Statistics of Coal; 

Inolading Mineral Bitaminous Substances employed in 
Arts and Manafactures ; with their Geographical, Geo- 
logical and Commercial Distribution, and Amount of Pro- 
duction and Consumption on the American Continent. 
With Incidental Statistics of the Iron Manufacture. By 
R. C. Taylor. Second edition, revised by S. S. Halde- 
man. Illustrated by five Maps and many Wood Engrav- 
ings. 8vo., cloth $6.00 

Templeton. The Practical Examinator oa 
Steam and the Steam Engine; 

With Instructive References relative thereto, arranji^ed 
for the use of Engineers, Students, and others. By Wni, 
Templeton, Engineer; 12mo $1.25 

This work was originally written for the author's private use. He 
was prevailed upon by various Engineers, who had seen the notes, to 
consent to its publication, from their eager expression of belief that 
it would be equally useful to them as it had been to himself. 

Tin and Sheet Iron Worker's Instructor; 

Comprising complete Descriptions of the necessary Pat- 
terns and Machinery, and the Processes of Calculating 
. Dimensions, Cutting, Joining. Raising, Soldering, etc. 
etc. With numerous Illustrations $2.50 

Treatise (A) on a Box of Instruments, 

And the Slide Rule ; with the Theory of Trigonomietry 
and Logarithms, including Practical Geometry, Survey 
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volume, 12mo $1.25 

A volume of inestimable value to Engineers, Gaugera, Students, and 

TiiriibulL The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph; 

With an Historical Account of its Rise, Progress, and. 
Present Condition. Also, Practical Suggestions in regard 
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ning. Together with an Appendix containing several 
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TurnbuU, M. D., Lecturer on Technical Chemistry at the 
Franklin Institute. Second edition. Revised and im- 
proved. Illustrated by numerous Engravings. 8vo..$2.50 

Turner's (The) Companion; 

Containing Instruction in Concentric, Elliptic and Eccen- 
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and Instruments ; and Directions for Using the Eccentric 
Cutter, Drill, Vertical Cutter and Rest ; with Patterns 
and Instructions for working them. 12mo., cloth.. $1.25 

Weatherlcy (Henry). Treatise on the Art of 
Boiling Sugar, Crystallizing, Lozenge 
making, Comfits, Gum Goods, 

12mo I2.0C 

Williams, On Heat and Steam: 

Embracing New Views of Vaporization, Condensation, 
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8vo $3.50 



'* I challenge the production from among the writers on political 
economy of a more learned, philosophical, and convincing speculator 
on that theme, than mr distinguished fellow-citizen, Henry C. Carey. 
Hiv works he has published in support of the protective policy, are 
rcniarkablc for profound research, extensive range of inquiry, rare 
logical acumen, and a consummate knowledge of history." — Speech of 
Hon. EdtDord Joy MorrU, in the Howe of Repreeentativet of the United 
SttUet^ February 2, 1869. 



" Henry C. Carey, the beat known and ablest ecnnomlst of North 
America. * * • * • In Europe he is principally known by his 
striking and original attacks', based upon the peculiar advantages of 
American experience, on some of the principal doctrines, especially 
Malthus' • Theory of Population* and Ricardo's teachings. His views 
have been largely adopted and thoroughly discussed in Europe."— 
" The German PolUical Lexicon,^* Edited by BlurUichli and Brater. Leiptie, 

" We believe that your labors mark an era in the science of political 
economy. To your researches and lucid arguments are we indebted 
for the explosion of the absurdities of Malthus. Say, and Ricardo, in 
regard to the inability of the earth to meet the demands of a growing 
population. American industry owes you a debt which cannot be re- 
paid, and which it will ever be proud to acknowledge.— Froro a Letter 
of Hon. George W. Scranton, Af. C., Hon. William Jessup, and over sixty 
influential cUizent of Luzerne County. Pennsylvaniaf to Henry C. Carey, 
Apnl 3, 1869. 

Financial Crises i 

Their Caases and Effects. Svo., paper * 25 

French and American Tariffs, 

Compared in a Series of Letters addressed to Mons. M. 
Chevalier. 8yo., paper 25 

Harmony (The) of Interests; 

AgricultTiral, Mannfactnring and Commercial. 8vo., 

paper 75 

Cloth $1.50 

** We can safely recommend this remarkable work to all who wish 
to investigate the causes of the progress or decline of industrial comr 
mimitiea.^*— Blackwood^ t Magazine, 

Letters to the President of the United States. 

8vo., Paper 50 

Miscellaneous Works; 

CompriBing "Harmony of Interests," "Money," "Let- 
ters to the. President," "French and American Tariffs," 
and "Financial Crises." One volnme, Svo $3.00 


; A Lecture 

Before the New York Geographical and Statistical So- 
ciety. 8to., paper 25 




Past (The), 

gyO, , ,,,, 

the Present, 

and the Future. 




'* Full of important facts bearing on topics that are now agitating 
all Europe. • « • These quotations will only whet the appetite 
of the scientific reader to devour the whole work. It is a book full of 
valuable information.'*— £conomi<<. 

** Decidedly a book to be read by all who take an interest in the pro- 
gress of social science."— Sp«c<a/or. 

*'A Southern man mvself. never given to tarifi* doctrines, I confess to 
have been convinced oy his reasoning, and, thank Heaven, have not 
now to learn the difference between dogged obstinacy and consistency. 
* Ye gods, give us "but light I' should be the motto of every inquirer 
after truth, but for far dilrerent and better purposes than that which 
prompted the exclamation." — The late John S. Skinner. 

" A volume of extensive information, deep thought, high intelli- 
gence, and moreover of material utility."— London Morning Advertiser, 

" Emanating from an active intellect, remarkable for distinct views 
and sincere convictions."— Britonnia. 

*• * The Past, Present, and Future,* is a vast summary of progressive 

I philosophy, wherein he demonstrates the benefit of political economy 
n the onward progress of mankind, which, ruled and directed by over- 
whelming influences of an exterior nature, advances little by little, 
until these exterior influences are rendered subservient in their turn, 
to increase as much as possible the extent of their wealth and riches." 
^Didionnaire Univertel des Contemporaint. Par G. Vapereau, Paris, 

Principles of Social Science. 

Three volumes, 8vo., clotli » J$10.00 

CONTENTS.— Volume I. Of Science and its Methods— Of Man, 
the Subject of Social Science— Of Increase in the Numbers of Mankind 
—Of the Occupation of the Earth— Of Value— Of Wealth— Of the For^ 
mation of Society— Of Approiiriation— Of Changes of Matter in Place 
—Of iVI hanical and Chemical Changes in the Forms of Matter. Vol- . 
ume II. Of Vital Changes in the Form of Matter^-Of the Instrument 
of Assocation. Volume III. Of Production and Consumption— Of 
Accumulation— Of Circulation— Of Distribution— Of Concentration 
and Centralization— Of Competition— Of. Population— Of Food and 
Population— Of Colonization— Of the Malthusian Theory— Of Com- 
merce—Of the Societary Organization— Of Social Science. 

" I have no desire here to reproach Mr. Malthus with the extreme 
lightness of his scientiflo baggage. In his day, biology, animal and 
vegetable chemistry, the relations of the various portions of the hu- 
man organism, etc. etc., had made but little progress, and it is to the 
feneral ignorance in reference to these questions that we must, as I 
hink, look for explanation of the fact that he should, with so much 
eonfldence. in reference to so very grave a subject, have ventured to 
suggest a formula so arbitrary in its character, and one whose hollow- 
ness becomes now so clearly manifest. Mr. Carey's advantage over 
him, both as to facts and logic, is certainly due in great part to the 
progress that has since been made in all the sciences connected with 
life ; but then, how admirably has he profited of them 1 How entirely 
Is he au courant of all these branches of knowledge which, whether 


directly or indirectly, bear upon his subject ! With what skill does he 
ask of each and every of them all that it can be made to furnish, 
whether of facts or arguments! With what elevated views, ana 
what amplitude of means, does he go forward in his work ! Abovi 
all, how thorough in his scientific caution 1 Accumulating induction* 
and presenting for consideration facts the most undoubted and proba 
bilities of the highest kind, he yet affirms nothing, contenting himsflf 
with showing that his opponent had no good reason for affirming the 
nature of the progression, nor the time of duplication, nor the gene- 
ralization which takes the facts of an individual case and deduces 
from them a law for every race, every climate, every civilization, 
"every condition, moral or physical, permanent and transient, 
healthy or unhealthy, of the various populations of the many coun- 
tries of the world. Then, having reduced the theory to the level of a 
mere hypothesis, he crushes it to atoms under the weight of facts."— 
M. De i'ontenay in the ^^ Journal des Economistes." PariSf September ^ 1862. 

" This book is so abundantly full of notices, facts, comparisons, cal- 
culations, and arguments, that too much would be lost by laying a 
part of it before the eye of the reader. The work is vast and severe 
in its conception and aim, and is far removed from the common rux» 
of the books on similar subjects."— ii Mondo LetUrariOy TuHn. 

"In political economy, America is represented by one of the 
strongest and most original writers of the age, Henry C. Carey, of 
Philadelphia. *****♦#***♦ 

** His theory of Rents is regarded as a complete demonstration that 
the i)opular views derived from Ricardo are erroneous ; and on the 
subject of Protection, he is generally confessed to be the master- 
thinker of his coxxntry,^^— Westminster Review. 

" Both in America and on the Continent, Mr. Henry Carey has ac- 
quired a great name as a political economist. * ♦ • • • 

" His refutation of Malthus and Ricardo we consider most triumph- 
ant."- JLondon Critic. 

" Mr. Carey began his publication of Principles twenty years ago ; 
he is certainly a mature and deliberate writer. More than this, he is 
readable : his pages swarm with illustrative facts and with American 
instances. •*•*•••••*•• 

" We are in great charity with books which, like Mr. Carey's, theo- 
rize with excessive boldness, when the author, as does Mr. Carey, 
possesses information and reasoning power." — London Athenceum. 

" Those who would fight against the insatiate greed and unscrupu- 
lous misrepresentations of the Manchester school, which we have fre- 
quently exposed, without any of their organs having ever dared to 
make reply, will find in this and Mr. Carey's other works an immense 
store of arms and ammunition. #***#♦*• 

** An author who has, among the political economists of Germany 
and France, numerous readers, is worth attentive perusal in Eng- 
land. "—Lomlon SUUesman, 

*' Of all the varied answers to the old cry of human nature, * Who 
will show us any good V none are more sententious than Mr. Carey's. 
He says to Kings, Presidents, and People. * Keep the nation at work, ' 
and the greater the variety of employments the better.' Hfe is seek- 
ing and elucidating the great radical laws of matter as regards man. 
He is at once the a]>ostle and evangelist of temporal righteousness." 
'■^National Intelligencer. 

" A work which we believe to be the greatest ever written by an 
American, and one which will in future ages be pointed •out as the 
most successful effort of its time to form the great scientia scientiarum.*^ 
"Philadelphia Evening Bulletin. 



The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreip; 

Why it Exists, and How it may be EztiDgnished. 12mo., 
cloth $1.60 

CONTENTS.— The Wide Extent of Slavery— Of Slavery In the 
British Colonies— Of Slavery in the United States— Of Emanciuation 
In the British Colonies— How Man passes from Poverty and Slavery 
toward Wealth and Freedom— How Wealth tends to Increase— How 
Labor acquires Value and Man becomes Free — How Man passes from 
Wealth and Freedom toward Poverty and Slavery— How Slavery 
grew, and How it is now maintained in the West Indies— How Slavery 
frew, and is maintained in the United States— How Slavery grows in 
Portugal and Turkey— How Slavery grows in India— How Slavery 

frowB in Ireland and Scotland— How Slavery grows in England- 
low can Slavery be extinguished?- How Freedom grows in Northern 
Germany— How Freedom grows in Russia— How Freedom grows in 
I)enmark— How Freedom grows in Spain and Belgium — Of the Duty 
of the People of the United States— Of the Duty of the People of Eng- 

** As a philosophical writer. Mr. Carey is remarkable for the union 
of comprehensive generalizations with a copious induction of facts. 
His research of principles never leads him to the neglect of details . 
nor is his accumulation of instances ever at the expense of universal 
truth. He is, doubtless, intent on the investigation of lavs, as the 
appropriate aim of science, but no passion for theory seduces him 
Into the region of pure speculation. His mind is no less historical 
than philosophical, and had he not chosen the severer branch in 
which his studies nave borne such excellent fruit, he would have 
attained an eminent rank among the historians from whom the litera- 
ture of our country has received such signal illustration." — New York 

French PoliticO'Economie Controversy, 

•Between the Supporters of the Doctrines of Caret and 
of those of RiCARDO and Malthds. By MM. De Fontenay, 
Bupuit, Baudrillart, and others. Translated from the 
** Journal des Economistes," 1862-63. (In press,) 

Protection of Home Labor and Home Prodac- 

Necessary to the Prosperity of the American Parmer 
By H. C. Baird. Paper l3 

Smith.. A Manual of Political Economy. 

By E. Peshine Smith. 12mo., cloth ..$1.26 


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